Síntesis de proteínas: Transcripción y traducción. Nivel principiante

Síntesis de proteínas: Transcripción y traducción. Nivel principiante


Hellooo my friends, how are you? Today we are about to talk about a topic related with genetics It is Protein Synthesis. We are going to learn how the proteins are made from the DNA. Basically, the process that occurs here is that our DNA is inside of the nuclear membrane The nuclear membrane is like a bag. And the DNA has to travel toward the ribosome, and once it arrives there, the protein is going to start with its synthesis. All this happen inside of a cell. The problem is: How is the DNA going to create the protein if it can’t get out from the nuclear membrane?? All the things which occur here are only two steps. The first one is called “transcription” and the second one is called “translation”. Here, the heroes of the history will be 3 molecules. The messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Each one is going to work in different moments in order to create the proteins properly. Before to start this video, I would recommend you to search basic information regarding DNA such as the difference between DNA and RNA. After that you are going to understand this better. One of the differences between DNA and RNA is in the DNA there are nitrogenous bases called thymine and, in the RNA this nitrogenous bases change to uracil. Right now we know the DNA can’t get out from the nuclear membrane. How is it going to get out? It is going to create a copy of itself called RNA It means, it is going to change its nitrogenous bases thymine to uracil and it is going to become into a RNA. Once the RNA was created, the RNA can get out from the nuclear membrane. So the RNA will get out. After the RNA was created from the DNA this RNA can leave the nuclear membrane, so it will do it. This RNA is going to be called messenger RNA because it carries the message. Some people instead of say messenger RNA, they say transcript, but it is the same, a synonym. This process is called “transcription” The process in which the DNA create a copy of RNA Once the mRNA left the nuclear membrane (It is called messenger because it is carrying the message), It is going to travel until the ribosome with the message. So, the mRNA get out very happy from the nuclear membrane, in order to search the ribosome. But, this mRNA just carries the half of the information. I mean, this is the DNA, and it just carries a part of the information Who has the other part of the information? The transfer RNA (tRNA) has the other part of the information This tRNA is swimming inside of the cell, searching the other half of the information and once it finds the information, this information is taken by the tRNA and is carried toward the ribosome. So, the mRNA goes to the ribosome with its information as well as the tRNA. Having passed that, the “translation” process starts when both (mRNA and tRNA) arrive to the ribosome and match perfectly. The information which carries the mRNA match with the information which carries the tRNA They match each part of the information like if they were a machine. Once they match this information, the creation of the amino acids start. But, a protein is constituted from a lot of amino acids. Someone has to link the amino acids in order to create the protein. Who is going to link each one of the amino acids? The ribosomal RNA (rRNA). This rRNA is going to link all the amino acids that were created by the mRNA and tRNA. When it finishes to link all the amino acids, the protein will be created. This step is the translation: when the mRNA match its information with the information of the tRNA, then the amino acids are created, and finally, they are linked by the rRNA to create the protein. In other words, in the transcription process, the mRNA is created and it goes to the ribosome. And in the translation process, the message of the mRNA matches with the message of the tRNA, then the amino acids are created, after that, the rRNA links them to create the protein. Basically this is the process of protein synthesis But I am going to do another videos, each one for each part of the process because the information is so much. Well, I hope you have enjoyed it, please write your comments below and keep watching more videos.