Protein – Structure Of Protein – What Is Protein Made Of – Structure Of Amino Acids Building Blocks

Protein – Structure Of Protein – What Is Protein Made Of – Structure Of Amino Acids Building Blocks


The structure of protein. All Proteins contain 4 elements,
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen; however, some proteins
contain phosphorus, sulfur, iron, zinc, magnesium
and other trace metals. Proteins are giant macromolecules that are
made up of amino acid building blocks. Amino acids can link together to
form long chains, typically a protein consists of 100 or more
amino acids linked together. There are 20 different
standard amino acids that your body requires
for healthy function. These amino acids are often classified as
essential and non-essential amino acids. Nonessential amino acids are
amino acids that our bodies can produce even if we don’t get
them from the food we eat. There are 11 non-essential amino acids. Essential amino acids
cannot be made by the body, so, they must
come from foods we eat. There are a total of 9
essential amino acids. The basic structure of amino acids is
that they consist of a alpha carbon, a carboxyl group, which is a carbon,
oxygen, oxygen, hydrogen group, a lone hydrogen atom, an amino group, which is a nitrogen,
hydrogen, hydrogen group, and a side chain or functional group,
which is often referred to as the R-group. The formation of the side chain is what makes amino acids
different from one another. On the screen is the structural formulas
for all 20 of the standard amino acids along with the amino acid selenocysteine, as some sources list it as a
21st standard amino acid. As you can see, they all have
the same chemical backbone, and the only difference is their
unique functional R group. These functional R groups of
have chemical characteristics that allow amino acids to be
organized into specific groups. Here we have the non polar
amino acids, non polar meaning the electrons are shared
equally in the molecule, these are hydrophobic, so they
tend to be repelled from water. Here we have the polar amino
acids; these molecules can have interactions with other polar amino
acids and with water molecules. Here are the charged amino acids,
since they are charged, an ionic bond can form between an
R group with a negative charge and an R group with a positive charge. And here are some amino acids that are
considered to have unique structures. As was stated earlier, amino acids can
link together to form long chains, there is an almost infinite
number of different variations of chains that can
be formed from amino acids. Each chain can have
different characteristics with different chemical properties. When 2 amino acids join together they
form what is called a peptide bond. A peptide bond is when the carboxyl or
carbon, oxygen, oxygen, hydrogen group of one amino acid bonds with the amino or
nitrogen, hydrogen, hydrogen group of another amino acid, as you
can see here (on screen). This is done through a
dehydration synthesis reaction, as the amino group involved in the
bond loses a hydrogen atom, and the carboxyl group involved in the bond
loses an oxygen and hydrogen atom. So, the peptide bonding results in
the release of a water H2O molecule. More amino acids can link
in, again releasing water molecules, and form what is
called a polypeptide chain. As you can see in this
polypeptide chain, at one end, an amino group remains,
called the N terminal, and at the other end a carboxyl group
remains, called the C terminal. Some proteins are single
polypeptide chains, and other proteins have polypeptide
chains linked together. Individual amino acids can also
be released from a peptide chain, by the decomposition reaction hydrolysis. In hydrolysis, a water
molecule is added, breaking the peptide bond and
freeing up an amino acid. So, amino acids link
together in a variety of sequences to form different
types of proteins. Some of these proteins
serve as enzymes, which help speed up metabolic
reactions in the body, some serve as hormones and help
regulate certain functions in the body, and some proteins help form the structure
of various tissues in the body, these are just a few of the many, many
functions that proteins have in the body. And that, be the basics on
the structure of protein.