Nutritional Problems

Nutritional Problems


Hi all Dr. Clark here again today’s
lecture for natural resource we’re going to talk about nutritional problems both
in developed countries and developing countries we normally know quite a bit
about developed countries because for the most people most people that are
watching this that’s where we live in developed countries we know that this
might look fictional but I’m sure some of you probably seen a hamburger or
whatever you call it quadruple decker I guess it’s probably
where that would be called before in your life maybe didn’t eat one yourself
but you know you probably know people that could for one of these down in the
United States we have nutritional problems around overeating when we
should be consuming more fruits and vegetables we tend to consider well the
onion and the tomato on here is the fruit and the vegetables in my life this
is going to be a nutritional problem and it’s not going away it’s actually make
becoming much more severe there’s lots of reasons for this one reason in my
opinion is that’s making this even worse has to do with the education that
elementary school kids are getting when it comes to nutrition and when it comes
to things like sports and and the usefulness of exercise and things like
that I think they’re not getting the
education they should and as that progresses even into middle school in
high school we are doing away with a lot more athletic programs and nutritional
programs and replacing them with other programs now I’m not saying that those
other programs are not needed but we still need to provide individuals
with healthy lifestyles because you might have the best job in the world
you know straight out of four-year college make 250,000 a year have a nice
house nice cars and everything like that but if you know nothing about the
benefits of exercise and the benefits of eating right you’re not gonna live to
see you know yourself progress financially regardless of the job and so
we’ll look at these nutritional problems because it’s not just our nutritional
problems but third world countries or developing countries have the opposite
side of the spectrum nutritional problems okay so a lot of times when it
comes to nutritional problems from a developing country point of view it has
to do with a lack of certain vitamins so malnourished or a nutritional imbalance
is caused by specific items normally vitamins being absent from one’s diet or
at least there’s not enough in their diet and that’s not to say that
individuals in the United States or developed countries can’t be
malnourished you can definitely have malnourishment in the United States due
to an imbalance and it has nothing to do with food intake except for the wrong
foods are being consumed so it has really nothing to do with how many
calories are being consumed but rather what kind of materials are being
consumed so when we look at worldwide remember the world population is about
seven point seven billion and rising about half of them a little less than
half of the people in the world suffer from some kind of vitamin or mineral
protein deficiency I mean that’s a big deal even though these individuals might
not be hungry remember it’s only about 16 percent of the world’s population are
considered to have severe hunger or be subjected to a lack of food about half
of the world’s population has some kind of deficiency when it comes to some some
part of their diet this can result in illnesses death
autoimmune disorders reduced immune function reduced growth a lot of times
maybe the MAL nourishment is only subjected to like overall growth of an
individual like bone density height these kind of things really there’s like
estimates that the kind of the first thousand days of a human’s life is is
that kind of tipping point if you’re missing vitamins and essential minerals
and things like that in your diet the first thousand days of your life then
you can never make them up you’ll never make up that growth rate or that bone
density no matter what your diet switches to so it basically causes
stunted growth in some situations or in other cases it can cause severe
deformities as as those individuals are trying to learn how to walk and crawl
and things like that it can cause lifelong deformities and so now
nourishment can be a really big deal when it comes to nutritional situations
all over the world regardless of calorie intake
the lack of certain minerals and vitamins can be a huge problem
so probably iron deficiency is the most common dietary imbalance and it happens
a lot in in the United States even and so that can lead to anemia which means
that you have less hemoglobin in your red blood cells which indicates often a
breathing problem in individuals so they’re not able to take in as much
oxygen with every breath so you can get anemia and asthma forming at the exact
same time and or you can be anemic which means that you know when it comes to
things like high altitudes that individual is poorly suited for
environments that have low oxygen levels lots lots of things like that the other
thing that it can cause is if you have severe anemia and you get you know bumps
and bumps and bruises and cuts it can cause hemorrhages and it can cause the
individual to die and this often happens in other countries developing countries
during childbirth so the if the mother doesn’t have enough iron or his iron
deficient and she gives birth that a lot of times the mother will bleed out or
have difficulties during that birthing process another one that occurs in a lot
of Asian countries and in parts of India is the lack of iodine in one’s diet you
might not think much about iodine it’s an element it’s found in quite a few
different foods but if you don’t have iodine it’s needed for a cognitive connection in the brain and
it’s also needed for the thyroid and so what you can have is big like gourds are
big swollen regions okay normally around the thyroid but also around any other
places where you’re going to produce hormones you can have these big swollen
areas it can stunt your growth and also can cause a decrease in mental capacity vitamin A is another one that a lot of
individuals in Africa are missing and this can cause blindness and about harm
forty million children are missing this so again a lot of these nutritional
problems come at that first kind of thousand days of life those are the ones
that are most important a lot of these are a lot of these nutritions are a lot
of these nutrients and vitamins and things like that are passed on through
breast milk but where you know vitamin A or something like that might not affect
a lack of vitamin A might not affect the mother it will affect her offspring it
will affect you know her children especially young in life so there’s a
few disorders or diseases that are due to deficiencies and different things for
protein deficiencies we see this a lot in African countries we have watch Cora
disease which we often call a displace child disease where basically most of
you pricing pictures of this where the stomach is bloated and the rest of the
body is very very skinny and sometimes discolored
sometimes this can look like can’t remember the name I can’t remember the
name Oh it’ll come to me later but anyways there’s other disorders where
you can have again low protein or that’s coupled with low calorie intake so
marche mas is the waste away disease often this will be both a bloated
stomach but you can also see very thin and the skin will often be kind of loose
in regions meaning that you know the skins therefore for more body mass but
the muscles have been deteriorated and the muscles the body is actually
consuming the muscle to provide enough nutrients to run the organs of the
individual so here you can see Mars bus you know not a huge bloat on this
individuals stomach but you can definitely see you know it’s never good
to be able to see all the ribs but it’s also not is really bad to be able to see
the sternum connection okay and there’s go der you can see that swollen thyroid
gland and this is due to a lack of iodine and the diet this is due mainly
to a lack of calories you can see this woman’s arm here probably the mother to
this child my guess is but you can see the deterioration of the muscle and the
woman very malnourished individuals so there are some kooky food sources in the
world there’s three main crops worldwide that the majority of nutrients and
nutrition comes for for Humanity and that’s wheat rice and
corn now in some cases these are used to feed protein sources in some countries
and and really not readily eaten but in other cases this is the staple diet is
either wheat rice or corn or all three in some cases so we look at the overall
production about two billion metric tons it’s grown each year and of course
there’s other staple products staple food sources depending on the
environment and the nice thing about wheat rice and corn is one of these
three items will probably grow almost every place in the world I have
especially with genetically modified organisms corn can go girl and brewery
and wheat can grow in really cold environments now and so a lot of these
can be grown in many different regions of the world but in some regions that’s
not possible to grow these so you’ll see some of these additional food sources
you know take the place of these things like potatoes which are grown often in
high altitude regions and like South America and things like that
barley oats rye these are cool climates moist climates often hillside climates
you can grow a lot of these things on those regions or in those regions whoops
sorry and then on hot hot environments with
moisture cassava cassava is a plant probably the staple food plant for
Africa and parts of India but yeah but they’re rooting or toupper plants like
sweet potatoes and potatoes for for that matter that can be found in warm wet
client now we noticed that there’s a lot of
situations where yo diseases or disorders that can result from a lack of
protein and we know that protein meat production is the best source of protein
and so most countries known as most people know this and and a lot of areas
are taking trying to take advantage of this you can see this by by looking at
this we looked at look at developed countries the meat consumption in a
developed country in 1960 was about 10 kilograms per person per year and now
it’s up to 26 kilograms per person per year so that probably increases the wall
it definitely increases the protein intake but it probably increases the
health of individuals now the further this goes the further it tips the scale
the worse it is for a population when it comes to obesity and other health issues
so if we look at the United States in 1960 people in the United States were
consuming about 90 kilograms per person per year and now we’re at about 136
kilograms per person per year in the same time interval as the rest of the
developed countries I mean look at that we are consuming over a hundred
kilograms more per person per year than another developed country and meat
consumption so it’s not wonder that we might have issues with obesity and
people being overweight we overeat meat by a lot and I will show you some more
examples of this so meat we know though is very high concentration of protein
has good iron so you’re not iron deficient has plenty of fats and other
nutritional value this this is true however it also has a huge amount of
calories and so the caloric intake from meat products is gigantic but
nonetheless when we look at meat and the production of meat and the consumption
of meat for that matter you can basically put on a scale if the higher
the meat production and consumption of meat the the higher the wealth of that
country is because meat is very expensive to make it takes more than
eight kilograms of grain to produce one kilogram of beef beef is pretty close to
the worst conversion you could possibly have from grain to beef is a horrible
conversion from grain to grain it’s a one-to-one conversion that should make
sense to you that each kernel of grain results in a kernel of food now from
grain to fish it’s about a 1.5 conversion chickens is you know for
every two grain grains you get one grain of chicken and on and on and on and you
look at beef it’s a one to eight conversion a really bad conversion when
you look at the overall kilograms produced and by and large for sure in
the United States the number one meat source that we consume is beef and
everyone else is far down the line in second third fourth place I mean
probably 10 times at least the amount of beef is consumed rather than pork
chicken so what’s allowed us to ramp up these
food resources often what we call kapos or confined animal feeding operations
these are gigantic food lots or feed Lots what some people call them and
these are areas at which we can house large amounts of organisms and feed them
all at the same time typically soybean diet more corn diet or both maybe some
wheat mixed in depending on the calf oh and what what organism we’re talking
about and this increases their growth and we can grow meat from you know birth
to production in less than a year and in some cases you know maybe a month or two
depending on the meat product that we’re talking about this is very common in the
United States where the leader in calf lows by far but Europe and China have
also picked up their production of meat in this way the other thing that we
start to see use we start to see new breeds being formed in some cases GMOs
genetically modified organisms or genetically selected organisms to get
from you know basically birth to production to be produced in the
shortest time possible it’s reasonable the other thing that is often supplied
at calf owes or feed Lots is an increase in antibiotics that is provided for the
organisms those first of all these organisms a lot of them are genetically
similar so there’s not a lot of genetic differences so that means their immune
system are all pretty close to the same and that means if you get one
disease that goes through you can lose the entire feedlot and this has happened
with like mad cow disease and things like that we’ve had the entire feedlot
being affected with diseases like that but the other thing it does is by
increasing the amount of antibiotics you decrease the amount of energy needed for
immune system so you don’t get the disease spread and on top of it that
increase in energetic that you save can go right into the production of meat or
eggs or whatever milk whatever the production is most the time we’re
talking about calf lows we’re talking about meat production but we can also
talk about other types of production whether it comes from eggs and milk and
these other productions where you have these large organizations of animals in
the same region nearly identical in genetics getting fed massive amounts of
antibiotics to prevent disease outbreaks now when we look at energetics we can
also look at the energy that’s needed to be utilized to run these organizations
to produce the food to produce the kilogram of meat you need about 16 times
the amount of fossil fuel to produce one kilogram of meat and so that’s how much
energy it needs compared to one kilogram of plant so if we’re growing tomatoes in
a greenhouse with all the lights and water that’s utilized it’s sixteen times
less energy than one kilogram of beef on a feedlot and you know that’s the energy
intensity of protein production or meat production when we look at what has been projected
by the UN and some other agricultural organizations it suggested that 20% of
the world’s greenhouse gases come from livestock production
that’s huge it’s a huge amount of greenhouse gases that are coming in from
this industry now this might blow your mind but this has been produced by many
organizations UN food WH o AG recovery organizations when we look at the amount
of fossil fuel it takes to make meat products especially beef if you were to
consume 1/5 of the beef that you intake you would reduce your energetic cost
more than if you bought a hybrid car and many of you might be like well it
depends on the hybrid car right yeah it does depend on the hybrid car but in
general it also depends on the meat that you eat but in general if you were to
just reduce the amount of meat by 1/5 you would reduce your ecological
footprint on the planet more than buying a hybrid car the other thing is is if
you look at how much food how much meat the average American intakes we intake
about 200 pounds a little bit over on average the average American eats 200
pounds of meat and by and large it’s beef 200 pounds of meat every year that
amounts to about 66 burgers now I know that most people don’t eat 66 hamburgers
in a month ok but this includes turkey and ground beef
and steak and ribs and all that other material beef or meat that we eat it
amounts to about 66 quarter pounders per month because we consume about 2 pounds
a day of meat product if you were to cut that in one by 1/5 you’d be consuming
about 13 burgers per month and reduce your ecological footprint but more than
going out and buying a hybrid car that’s the United States and parts of Europe
where majority of the meat consumed is red meat or poultry pretty much the rest
of the world its seafood so when we look at seafood in general the protein from
seafood is the staple and then we’re talking in some regions about 1.5
billion people it’s their only protein source is coming from seafood and this
is hugely important for developing countries so developing countries far
more than developed countries consume seafood as their main protein source
well this is taking a major toll on the world’s fisheries since 1989 almost
every single fishery that we have whether we’re talking about salmon
whether we’re talking about halibut whether we’re talking about Cod which is
almost all gone pollock haddock tuna you name it even you know shellfish and the
invertebrates that we eat lobster and crab almost every single one of them is
unsustainable and on a major decline most predictions suggest that by 2050
every single food ok every single seafood that you currently could buy at
a grocery stores so you go to a normal grocery store go to the seafood section
all of those are gone by 2050 completely gone exhausted
no more production and majority of those species will be extinct
that’s how severe the problem is apart from just the overall take you have
bycatch issues where no turtles and birds and other species that shouldn’t
be taken out like sharks and dolphins and other other species aquatic mammals
and things like that that are taking via bycatch are also having you know an
effect from the fishing practices that we currently utilize today which is
basically a very large boat with a very large net behind it and when I’m talking
very large net I’m talking a neck that is big enough that you can fit 3 4 747s
giant airplanes inside the net and still have room and we’re talking massive Nets
that can pull be pulled through the water to catch pretty much everything
that’s in that water source so we’ve switched a lot of countries realize that
fishing wild species fishing wild fish species is not the answer and will never
be able to do this and supply food resources to developing countries and
the developed countries for that matter so a lot of countries are switching to
aquaculture are growing speed species of fish and other things in confined areas
just like feed Lots to increase the world’s seafood production there are
major problems with this and that is just like feed Lots or calf owes you
have the same issue except for when you’re looking at aquaculture supplies
sometimes it’s the wild populations that we’re bringing in to grow other times
it’s the wild populations of smaller organisms
okay krill shrimp the kind of things that we’re capturing to feed in the
populations of fish that we keep in these pens so you’re just taking from
the environment to feed it’s kind of a similar problem that we have in cafes
where you’re growing massive amounts of corn and soybeans and things like that
just to feed the livestock so you’re damaging the land off of the capos – so
you’re damaging the land off of the CAFO to support the cattle and that’s exactly
what we see in aquaculture systems also apart from that most of these occur as
close to the coast as possible so coral reefs mangroves these kind of things are
all being dredged up cut down and you’re blocking off little sections of the
oceanic region so that you can grow seafood so you get a lot of damage to
the terrestrial environment around but also the semi terrestrial environment
these transitional species that occur in those regions of course just like the
concern is with feed locks is that you could spread disease you can spread
disease with in the aquaculture system but because
these are not closed systems and the water is flowing through these systems
you can also spread disease and parasites and things like that to the
native fishing fish in the nearby water the other thing is just like and you
know feed Lots you increase the amount of fecal material you increase the
amount of antibiotics you increase the other pollutants that are going into the
water system these are going directly into the water system when it comes to
feed Lots that has to come through runoff but it almost always does because
if it rains its running off into the nearby streams and things like that here
it’s going directly into the water source and with that we will talk about
well what can be done if feed Lots are not the answer if aquaculture is not the
answer if mass production of three main species wheat rice and corn is not the
answer because of the amount of pesticides and herbicides and the amount
of nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus that you have to add back to
the landscape to raise these crops on the landscape what’s the answer what’s
the possible answer to decrease that food shortage even further again
600 million people are dying from starvation or will probably die from
starvation so again seven point seven billion six
hundred million so you pretty much take you know a little piece of that away and
those individuals are going to die of starvation
apart from that Mountain irishman nutrient deficiency etc about half the
world’s population is in some kind of form of nutrient deficiency so what can
we do that’s next time