Local Foods College 2018   Fruits & Nuts

Local Foods College 2018 Fruits & Nuts


this
welcome to the local foods college this is our seventh year of doing this
educational forum and the pictures here actually do give you a breadth of the
stuff that we work on everything from food and pollinators to greenhouses and
grazing this education platform is one is curated by and developed by the
University of Minnesota Extension the lead coordinator is Linda cannery who is
the Regional Director for the in the Northeast Northwest excuse me for the
regional sustainable development partnership and we are part she is part
of a team of people from all around the state who work on this platform and
create educational opportunities for you many of these opportunities have been
developed right from the evaluations and responses and input that people have
provided over the years so we hope that they are valuable for you so I want to
introduce our speaker for the night his name is Thaddius mechanic he comes from
the central Lakes College daddy’s grew up in Colorado and Montana and started
working with fruit at an age of 12 by picking cherries peaches and apples
which sounds delightful he also regularly ate every wild fruit that
grows in both states for the past 17 years he has been working with fruit
growers in Minnesota the main crops worked with our apples strawberries
blueberries and raspberries he has also overseen several projects
looking at the commercial potential of new fruit crops including goji berries
choke cherries gooseberries and pears and with that we will move on to daddy
is’s presentation for the last two years I’ve been working with the Minnesota
Institute of sustainable agriculture to write up guidelines and information
about new crops so if you look in the background you see a poster of some
strawberries you see a poster of some apples well this is not strawberries and
apples these are crops that typically have not got have not had a lot of
research and as Anna mentioned in my introduction and I’ve been interested in
this ever since I was a child and I lived in areas of Montana and Colorado
where there weren’t a lot of fruits so I ate anything that was remotely edible
and and grew on trees or bushes and I started eating choke cherries when I was
eight so I was wondering um has anybody here ever eaten fresh choke cherries so
so but why is there an interest Dennis first of all oh somebody has eaten fresh
choke cherries okay okay I guess if anybody wants to answer that ESS
questions go ahead and check use your green checkmarks and here and the red X
marks there and status can see your answers and it looks like Brett said yes
with a capital yes yes Susan has a bush in her yard they ate them growing up and
B Kirk yes I have some in my backyard awesome
okay when I talk about is something sour that gives you where my background is I
generally think that other people won’t so but why are you this interest in new
crops well first of all there’s new crops available part of it comes from
the end of the Cold War but now we got new um new plants that previously
weren’t available especially from Eastern Europe and Northeast Asia North
East Asia by the way is one of the places where a lot of the really cold
hardy new plants are coming from also there’s an interest in new local
foods new flavors and then the neat thing about a lot of this is when all is
said and done we don’t need to import the new fruit from anywhere we could
survive if you really want to get all the vitamin C you want from the crops
that we’ll be talking about tonight but in addition um in the last 20 years
there’s been a real interest in health benefits unusual health benefits from
certain crops and I’ll just go over this very briefly I go for into a lot more
detail and in the publication so first of all then everything I’m talking about
there’s going to be vitamin C some of these crops have unusual vitamins like
vitamin E and almost all of them have antioxidants which is good I’m one of
these people I don’t by the way I don’t eat antioxidants and pills but I love
eating anything any fruit that’s dark purple which is primarily has anti
anthocyanins which are an important antioxidant but there’s also real
probable medicinal properties some of these new crops that I’ll be covering
tonight so aronia has been shown to to help in recovering heart attacks for
example heart diseases and a health lesson effect of diabetes whereas
elderberries which are shown on the right here have been shown to there’s
pretty good evidence that they will they have antiviral activity and they can
actually reduce colds and flus whereas black currants appear to have benefits
of our eyesight whereas see berries which I will be covering tonight we’re
actually developed by the Soviet scientists to help with skin care
especially for astronauts so but there’s a lot of confusion about these because
most of these are not ready for commercial
and right now and part of it is we need on home gardeners like many of yous to
help us find out the best way to raise and harvest some of these and one of the
most critical things is we need to find out what is the best variety here what’s
easiest to pick what has the highest yields what’s the most disease
resistance because disease resistance can be really critical in Minnesota and
I see a lot of you’re from southern Minnesota where disease is more
important also for commercial growers a lot of these just don’t have a market
right now and where there is a market I will I will explain where that
particular market is so one of the things I always liked one of the
confusion about this is when we talk about strawberries apples pears they
domesticated in some cases a thousand two thousand years ago but when we’re
talking about most of these emerging crops they’re they’re still in the
process of being domesticated and so some of the things that we don’t like
the reason why we don’t we have these these things things that we don’t like
like thorns astringency we don’t have in a lot of what domesticated crops no
example I always give is pears pears are naturally astringent they have that same
drying paste that you get when you eat a choke cherry but dumb pears were
domesticated 2,000 years ago and that’s been bred out nothing by the way
nobody’s going to get them release and name a new variety of pair that is
astringent but we look at wild plants there’s high genetic variability now a
lot of times people think that’s really good to have all this genetic
variability it is not good if you have choke cherries that ripen at them over
the course of a month I’m no sell you one bushes ripe on July 10th and other
bushes ripe on August first and so you never really got enough
to them to make a to make a thing of children Jerry Kelly the other issue
we’ve hand into with G berries is we we planted ceilings and we had 50 seed
linked and 49 of them were not acceptable for any use whatsoever so
because of this we start domesticating plants and when we domesticated plants
we choose wild plants the first of all we choose wild plants with desirable
fruit and usually with these crops we’re only looking at fruit we’re not looking
at anything else then we propagate them ace actually so with cuttings and
grafting things like that and examples that I’ll be covering tonight that are
in stage one are our Saskatoon’s clove currants Aronian elderberries stage two
I just call that simple breeding one or two crosses and we’re still looking for
fruit quality and a lot of these are earned as stage two which would be Hardy
Kiwi goji Hass caps and C berries and then stage three is everything else
there’s where there’s extensive breeding on there’s different scientists have
different lines for disease resistance in other characteristics and the plants
that have been domesticated the longest here would be black currants and
gooseberries and but in also you can see that um you know black currants are in
stage three club currants are in stage one actually some of them are wild a lot
of these plants that are in stage one are actually on North American natives
we’re way behind in domesticating compared to other parts of the world so
I start out with currants and I start out with currants because I think
they’re they have the biggest potential for commercial production currants are a
huge crop in Eastern Europe and in Russia I’m actually Russia all the way
to the Pacific Ocean and and currents all currents are
upright shrubs the maximum height is about six to eight feet and they get
really confusing because there’s three sections and within these three sections
in most cases they’re most multiple species so there’s the red currants and
the white currants are actually red currants that don’t have red collar and
then there’s the black currants and I’ll go into more detail on all of these and
then finally there’s the Native American close current and if you have scientific
name it’s ribes or a image that’s golden I don’t know why it’s called golden Kern
and I’ll talk about why it’s called a clove current and there’s some disease
issues with these now first of all with currants and gooseberries they belong to
the same genus and they were outlawed in the 1930s 1920s and 30s for the for
white pine blister rust now in Norway they were oftentimes more concerned
about currants than they were in white than white pines
whereas in North America they were more concerned about white pines and currants
and so they thought they could control white pine blister rust by by outlawing
all ribes production in the United States it didn’t work they even have
people in North Idaho walking through the forest trying to pull every current
that they could find it didn’t work and in 1969 they were legalized again but
currants have been very slow gaining popularity currants and gooseberries for
a number of reasons they’ve been slow and other the big thing here is in
norwegian or german grandmother didn’t have any currants didn’t have any
gooseberries to cook with and so a lot of those recipes a lot of those
traditions have been lost what I find in this state is can boars and powdery
mildew actually have a a big a bigger problem especially in southern Minnesota
where a lot of you are listening from then
then white pine blister rust and what we find especially with cane blowers I’ve
only seen that in the metro area I haven’t seen it in northwestern
Minnesota and powdery mildew it does tend to get better the farther Northwest
you go in the state so what do you use currents for well then you don’t use
dried currants that’s actually great whenever you go to the grocery store or
gourmet store and they talk about currants those are grapes dried currants
but um there’s a big use for wine it’s pretty sour for wine I’d like to see
it’s also used for jams and jellies but one of the main uses worldwide for for
currants is juice and before oranges became widespread currant juice both red
and black was a major source of vitamin C in fact in England they during World
War Two when the oranges were cut off they supply of oranges was cut off they
actually developed a drink called rye bean and with black currants it’s still
being used today also you can do a lot of cooking with black currants I I like
to raise cabbage sometimes be beef with with red currants so red currants
worldwide are not the most common but and I find that a lot of people in
Minnesota and Wisconsin prefer red currants they tend to be more
disease-resistant than black currants and also for people who were born in the
United States the flavor is a little more people
peeling they are easy to they’re a little easier to eat fresh white
currants by the way are actually bred to eat fresh but I found that even I can’t
eat a lot of white currants at one sitting one thing I really like about
red currants is they are higher yields and they’re eager to pick than black
currants and as opposed to black currants they ripen evenly in the
cluster so when you see a little cluster of fruit like I have here you can strip
everything off where sometimes with blacks you have to pick them peace
cluster twice some of the varieties have large seeds which can be an issue
the currents I have in my at my place I actually have to separate the seeds out
they cannot be consumed not all red currants are that way but black currants
worldwide are way more common and they are really in Eastern Europe and Russia
they Eastern Europeans and Russians love black currants and most of the black
currants that are being sold in Minnesota are actually sold to
immigrants from savior Ukraine Russia Poland places like that um yes we have a
question just for Miranda she asks our black currants mealy in texture when
making Jam no they shouldn’t be no they make a really good Jam thanks oh yeah if
they we’re nearly in techno so no they tend to be really to see if
they’re picked correctly and if the Jam is very good by the way a lot of times
people use it um you know the Russians will actually eat it with with beef I
think black currants are inevitable as a crop in Minnesota largely because of the
they’re loaded with phytonutrients they’re excellent for you they’re a
little harder to pick and I say they taste a little look like pine sap
some of that might be a little harsh but for processing they’re very good the
juice is very good the juice by the way tastes very different than red currant
juice red currant juice actually tastes more like lemonade whereas on the black
currant has much richer flavor so they are more susceptible to leaf diseases
and than red currants so I recommend most of you are in
southern Minnesota I really recommend if you’re going to
try black currants that you try to find ones varieties that are resistant to
white pine blister rust and I didn’t have a rest in there but white pine
blister rust resistant varieties and and I have on in the
application have a list of all the varieties remember blackcurrants have
been around for 400 years they are there are actually hundreds of varieties only
about a dozen are so available in the United States and there’s going to be
more coming to the United States over the next few years
um so but I like clove currents not everybody likes love currents I do part
of it is we had one in Colorado and they are the only current or gooseberry with
fragrant flowers with showy flowers and fragrant flowers and in my biased
opinion I think they’re worth planting just wear the flowers you can smell the
flowers which smell like cloves by the way for you know you know 10 yards away
they also tend to be more disease resistant because they are native to
North America Central North America and the fruit are pretty easy to eat fresh
the reason why they’re not more popular among people who are growing currants is
they tend to have fairly low yields but I think if we choose the right varieties
that can happen Crandell by the way is the only variety that I know of
oftentimes it’s listed under the species from rabies odor Atum and it was
something selected for for the flowers not for the fruit but the fruit is very
edible I eat it all the time so now we go to the closely related gooseberries
which tend to be small shrubs and gooseberries one reason why they’re not
more popular is we replaced by seedless grapes especially in England where there
is a big-gun gooseberry production before or two the fruit can be red
yellow orange or green and they are they tend to be sour
and so the picture I have here is Hanamaki red it is considered too sour
for press consumption but it’s really good for pastries and stuff I love to
make pies and other pastries with Hanamaki red and that also can be used
for a wine now the other thing – I just want to emphasizes a lot of
these don’t need to be used for cab can have double uses I live next to a road
where there’s a lot of snowmobiles I don’t mind if the snowmobiles are next
to the road I don’t like them turning around in my yard so I planted a lot of
thorny gooseberries and it has really worked really well
a man currently have a crop or a grant where we’re looking at them at new
gooseberry varieties what’s the potential and I think there is a
potential because they do have a unique taste especially if you use the right
varieties and one of the thing reasons why I think gooseberries are so artists
pop aren’t more popular is for 40 years the only the only gooseberry variety
listed in most seed catalogues was pix well and and I just don’t think it’s
that good of a variety some of these others have really nice nice tasting
fruit for good especially refreshed eating some of them are actually quite
sweet but they are difficult to harvest the biggest disease yes I’m sorry
are they native we had a question about gooseberries being native to Minnesota
yes they are native there’s one variety called John’s John’s Prairie GA Ahn
which is actually a wild selection from Canada the domesticated ones are
actually most of them are from Europe with the exception of John’s Prairie and
yeah and also when you get into the wild sometimes the difference between
gooseberry and current it’s hard to even know which yellow while in the backyard
is a gooseberry our current the biggest disease problem we have is powdery
mildew and they oftentimes are dfoliated by the middle of August and
we’re working on that by the way so we need to find what varieties are better
we need to find out what the market is and I really think if we get good
varieties they’ll be easier to sell we’ll have more information on that in a
few years I’m also really concerned about this this powdery mildew
I think we’re I think we’re slowly getting a handle on it one of the big
things is we need to develop training systems so I had talked a guy last week
from Massachusetts who actually is selling for acres of gooseberries and he
has everything trained just like this it’s trained on a wire and okay all I
could its trained on a wire here so that the berries are hanging below the wire
in that way you don’t get stabbed whenever you’re trying to to pick them
giving stabbed is very easy when you’re trying to get gooseberries some people
are using gloves but on this commercial harvester is just able to get avoid that
problem with by training a modest trellis um we’ll see what happens yes
there’s another question is white pine rust prevalent in Hubbard County they
have a lot of white pine forests yes it’s pretty much across the state so in
other County that would be even worse okay if there’s white pines you will
have one white pine blister rust unfortunately great thanks that answered
your questions thank you there’s a lot of interest in honey
berries or hash caps in there they’re a very new crop from the Russian Far East
in the island the northernmost island of Japan Hokkaido
now the honey berry the first thing I always like to say is the name comes
from honeysuckle it does not become because they taste like honey
the name hash cap refers specifically to honey berries from the island of
Hokkaido where most of the new a lot of these are coming from they tend to be
low growing bushes but there’s magnificent bridles and the berries are
born in twin flowers just like the tartarean honeysuckle that’s so common
in windbreaks and of course the fruit as you can see
are also are also found in as twins there we go and it’s odd shape fruit to
me this is one of the problems with with honey berries some of them look like
purple caterpillars some of them look pretty nice here in the flavor one of
the things that has going for but there’s number of things they have
calling for them one is the flavor especially processed not so much fresh
the flavor is similar to blueberries and it can be an alternative for blueberries
if you look far in alkalotic levels they also to have frost tolerant blossoms I
have seen this in the field the blossoms actually can handle temperatures in a
mid to low twenties which is very unusual for any fruit crop so I think
there’s a lot of promise because I like the fruit the fruit is really good in
ice cream because it’s so intensely flavored and dark-colored on pastries I
had some less preserves last week and it almost make me feel good just having one
tablespoon got a lot of diseases there is a powdery mildew that’s a problem
I’ll have a picture of it in the next slide slide and they also ripen very
early the biggest problem we’re running into it yields the yields just aren’t
that high especially compared to blueberries and I’ve had a lot of
discussions with people I see low blossom numbers as being an issue other
people think it’s pollination and if you look at this flower there’s a really
long tube a long tube here and so not everything can pollinate this flower
it’s we prefer to have bumblebees another problem is a bloom so early
sometimes there’s not a lot of bumblebees out so they will bloom on the
first week of April in some cases um so and the other thing oh I a slowed
harvest I mean they’re slow to pick a lot of times people just aren’t able to
pick enough to make commercially viable but in a yard
there’s no reason not to have one of these but choosing one is going to be
really tough because there are so many varieties and by the way there’s a
number of commercial orchards being planted in Minnesota in Quebec in Poland
in Scotland and one of the problems is there are so many new varieties being
being released and there’s basically three programs there’s a private company
in Arkansas and Lydia Delafield she’s from Rock a really impressive woman I’m
just really impressed with what she’s doing
and so she’s primarily choosing varieties out of Russia
Maxine Thompson’s as a retired horticulture professor at Oregon State
University and she primarily is releasing varieties
from Japan and then on Bob borscht from Saskatchewan it’s doing a lot of
different crosses and some people say oh my my my plants yield a lot I don’t know
what variety that is and I think if we can get the yield up it’s going to
really have a good potential but we’re still trying to figure out pruning and
training I think they should be pruned mainly because they are as you can see
on this this this really good picture the flowers are produced on new growth
and so I think we need a fair amount of pruning so that we can get more new
growth for no four more flowers all right I saw a couple questions about
honey berries oh yeah I would expect that okay no so great I want some myself
there was a question from Hitler he was wondering about hummingbirds are they a
crop that hummingbirds enjoy it depends on if the humming it depends on if the
hummingbirds are there when they bloom in some cases they’re going to be
blooming before the hummingbirds arrive and that’s going to depend on variety
it’s going to depend on the year whether it’s an early spring or a late spring a
late spring yes I think timing birds yes now when you look at yeah it looks
perfect for having great question I’ve never gotten that
question with that kind of blossom you that’s that’s that’s a really good
question and I don’t another one another question or sort of a statement from
Miranda who says she has 12 honey berries but hardly gets any fruits
they’re covered with blossoms just a few berries so she doesn’t ask but I’m kind
of inferring that she’s kind of curious if you have any insight into why that
might be that sounds like a lack of bumblebees and the question is are they
bullying too early before the bullies are out which is which which has been a
big issue so any plant anything around that would well the other thing is he
has to have several varieties too because they are self infertile I did
not put that in there and calling that something that should be put in there is
you need multiple varieties the other issue is there’s a lot of genetic
variability and not only you need more than one variety you need two varieties
that bloom at the same time so if there’s a week difference in blooming
they may not they may not pollinate good really good question I’m really
good questions I just okay double check yes and then Mary Lee I
just mentioned honey berry USA is from Clearwater County and they sell just
there just for anybody on interest yeah honey us honeyberryusa.com sell some at
sells plugs yeah and also there is a place dark
place in Arkansas is selling four pumps some as well so Sask turns a lot
interest in Saskatoon’s they’re related to apples and pears which is a pet peeve
of mine as you’ll find out and a slider to poo and a Saskatoon belongs to the
species em lankier on the flora and they are from Saskatchewan and I always like
to point out that the City of Saskatoon was named after the berry the berry was
not named after the city a Juneberry are ones that haven’t been de más
educated they are native to Minnesota and they’re pretty much anywhere in this
state and I’ll talk a little about a little bit about other species of June
berries that you know it within the same genus just a little bit so um this is my
pet peeve there is a a nursery that likes to advertise new Saskatoon
blueberries doesn’t require acidic soil Saskatoon’s are not blueberries they are
June berries they are serviceberries they are shad berries there are Sarvis
berries what we call them in Colorado that they are not berries they are right
they do not require acidic soil they actually handle alkaline soil pretty
well that they taste very different they are susceptible to very different to
different diseases as well which is really critical they can be eaten
fresh but they have large seeds when I talk to my brothers and sisters
they didn’t like them because the the seeds I don’t I didn’t like them too
much because they don’t have a lot of acidity doesn’t give a real round flavor
but they are really good for for being processed and you know if any of you
have ever eaten an apple seed you know it has kind of an almond flavor well in
Saskatoon’s they’re closely related and that almond flavor is released when it’s
cooked and so when you make an Alaska tune or a Juneberry pie you never have
almond flavor it’s almost overwhelming the other thing is since it’s a low acid
fruit you can combine it with an acidic fruit or with rhubarb and you can make
some really nice jams ice cream toppings pies I mean there’s a little bit of wine
they’re mainly grown of course in in Canada and in any of the prairie
provinces in Canada so there’s a lot of uses good yields they’re easy to pick on
in the Prairie they’re really good and one of the I put this in here because it’s
one of the few plants that we can propagate by
seed they do come true to seed to a certain extent unlike any other crop I’m
talking about they but the problem is they are bird magnets and it is one of
the few berries I know that the birds don’t wait until they’re ripe they turn
red and the Robins will pick every every berry on there in Minnesota we are
really struggling with leaf diseases we don’t really know what the disease is
but they are defoliating the plants usually by August so we also need a
suitable varieties for the Midwest and that’s what I want other people to do so
a lot of people have tried these commercially and very few people have
succeed mainly because the leaf diseases in the birds you just can’t wait until
they turn purple to put a bird netting on we’re also finding a number of insect
pests and what I’m recommending right now if you’re really interested don’t
try the Saskatoon’s but try on other species the fruit is surprisingly
similar between species the disease resistance is not some of these other
two some of some of these other species like gland of gland Oh flora are
resistant they turn one of them is called Autumn Blaze and it has a
brilliant color in the in the fall and good fruit in the summer some of them
that were come out of Wisconsin have names of royalty so there’s a princess
Diana Princess William and all of those should be Hardy especially in southern
Minnesota I was at the University of Chicago campus embarrassing my daughter
by eating by eating June berries on a on a tree growing in the middle of campus
and I thought they were just as good as a as a Saskatoon oh very same thing my
boss took me on campus and we did a eating tour so great yeah that’s and
that’s a weird thing usually the fruit really varies in the trees vary
but here the the fruit doesn’t vary much from whether
you’re talking about some of the Eastern species versus Western species and I
always do Saskatoon’s in aronia together because they are closely related they’re
actually palm fruit similar to apples and pears and they actually for most of
American history they were used as an ornamental under the name black
chokeberry of course um there’s two problems with the name chokeberry one it
is confused with chokecherry and even i get that confused when i did it taste
test with these things of course I couldn’t say chokeberry because people
would think it was choked cherry and also people you know that the name choke
turns people off but they were happy to even though they’re native to North
America they were developed as a fruit crop up in Eastern Europe and then the
Soviets long before anybody was talking about antioxidants and phytonutrients
the the Soviets were on developing this for its health benefits and the ones
with edible fruit that are grown for fruit with the large fruit tend to be a
fairly tall shrub sometimes 15 to 20 feet tall and these were reintroduced
into the United States and early 2000s I think they might actually be across with
with mountain ash too which is why they’re so tall and the main interest is
a large spoon manufacturers for energy drinks and they are blended typically
most of the aronia juice that’s being used in the various energy drinks
actually comes from from the Ukraine it’s um imported as juice and so a lot
of people are interested in in you know saying well we can grow them here in the
United States unfortunately the market collapsed so there’s a real potential
for overproduction with aronia and I oh I I hear people talking about insect
pests and diseases I haven’t seen those in Minnesota I haven’t seen any
diseases enough to work really worried about they do need to be pruned by the
way in the but the problem is the markets pretty low so we need more uses
for the fruit and there’s one organic grower near La Crosse who makes this
plum aronia jam that is absolutely out of this world so if you find the right
uses there’s more of a future for this and I always I always say if you know
any Russian friends talk to them see what they do in them as well elderberries there’s actually three
Hubbell species within the edible species this is really critical because
there is a red species native to Minnesota but all of the black species
have edible fruit and the red species does not so the European species it’s
not used planted here very often but I meant this is the only case where I
actually have varieties two varieties actually out of out of Denmark that are
reportedly Hardy to zone through P and actually I might be planting some of
these here in staples this year because we’re not having a lot best success with
American ones which I’ll explain a little later but American species this
would be eastern North America they are bare fruit on first-year canes and
that’s what the commercial people are doing they Mulga canes down every year
then you don’t have to worry about winter injury the problem we’re running
into here in staples is our growing season just isn’t long enough for the
for the fruit to ripen if the cane is sprouting this in the
spring I would also like I’m encouraging people to try the blue elderberry from
especially the blue elder at very from western Montana and northern Idaho which
could be Hardy especially in southern Minnesota
it is not domesticated the fruit quality is fair
good but I’m a westerner so I’m biased excuse me there’s a lot of things you
can do with elderberry the color is great it makes great colouring for a lot
of things really deep purple one thing people like are those large it’s it’s
they’re called signs they’re easy to pick but this is a critical thing I’ll
show the picture um good the goat you have to remove the berries from the sign
and for small growers that’s a little bit of a problem so a lot of people have
machines that do that the sign does contain cyanide compounds
so you don’t want to minimize the amount assignment when you’re cook making jelly
I’ve done taste tests with this especially when I live in the northwest
people really like it but elderberries can also be used for the flowers and if
you don’t have time to ripen the the berries you can use it flowers a lot of
times this is being used commercially in teas wine and in juice very popular in
Northern Europe by the way my daughter’s living on the Germany Denmark border and
she’s really gotten into to elderflower elderflower tea in spite of me what so
and the medicinal value is both in the fruit and the flowers so you can go to
the you can go to on CVS pharmacy and buy Sam you call which is not a lot
different than the jelly that I’ve made elderberries really hard to get to gel
and I always end up a syrup and it doesn’t taste a lot different than this
Sam buccal which I bought last year so I don’t I honestly don’t know where the
Sam you call is coming most of the most of the medicinals ones that are being
used in the United States come from the North American species oh this is nice
they like a heavier soil they can handle a little bit of a wet feet better than
any other crop we’re working with they bloom in summer when there’s no concern
about Frost and in Minnesota as I mentioned they’re
removing the canes to the ground every year but I don’t think that system is
suitable for staples north one of my concerns too is most of the
new varieties out of Missouri are here that’s just too far south you know they
might be Hardy but I’m not sure we can get the fruits ripe and that’s why I’m
encouraging people to try varieties from Europe or varieties or um seedlings from
Idaho um there’s a good future for elderberries there’s a good market it’s
an excellent tasting product a lot of the European varieties by the way you
have to be careful a lot of them were actually selected as ornamental but you
can be used for edible landscaping they’ve got big nice flowers that bloom
in the middle of the summer attract lots of pollinators but especially in central
and northern Minnesota I think we should be experimenting there’s also doesn’t
about there’s a question about Sam you call
wondering what form it takes is it tablet capsule Joe actually they have
capsules in it and it some of it’s a cough syrup which which I had last year
so yes so there’s also a lot of interest in
hardy Kiwis our active media I like this scientific name for a number of reasons
and this actually goes much farther back and Minnesota than most people realize
because it was introduced as an ornamental at the time people like muhammad crawled
that grew up the size of buildings a lot of the you know english ivy on top of
the hardy municipalities lines and um in china and korea that grew very well in
minnesota and then they realized oh they produce fruit as well now the name kiwi
is it’s kind of weird how that happened there’s there is another species from
China again and some people in New Zealand started growing developed them
for commercial production and since they were in New Zealand they decided well
nobody’s going to buy a Chinese gooseberry Willie will call them kiwi
fruit and so then after Kiwis became popular
as a fresh fruit in the 1970s people started looking at these other species
and the name sort of stuck even though none of these are from New Zealand most
of them are directly from East Asia now the difference between the the hardy act
and IDIA and the ones that you buy in the store is the skin is edible and
there’s a male and female plants so you always need to get a male one as well
one male to about five to seven females and there’s actually three species and
several interspecific hybrids and I do like to talk about the species because
they are distinct the one that’s most Hardy that people are most interested in
is a is the action a vehicle emit oftentimes is called extra Hardy key or
Arctic beauty it’s a zone two plant by the way and the male plants have
variegated leaves so it’s often used as an ornamental that way people are
struggling with the fruit on these the fruit that more people are interested in
is from act ammonia or Gouda which is often called the bower mine you can see
there’s red petals that’s one of the distinctive features of the of the bower
mine it has larger fruit and this is a species where we think there is
commercial potential we’re still trying to try mine varieties and everything but
there’s and but the problem is it’s irregular production and nobody has yet
to make money off of them Activia are Goethe difficult pick that could change
next year but a lot of potential form for all three of these species well I
was interested in the silver mine which by the way I guess a track scat it’s
similar to catnip on most everybody says that fruit is marginal but it also has
the prettiest flowers and that’s one thing with any of these they are
fantastic ornamentals for arbors things like that and then if you get fruit
um it’s really nice so Oh a lot of interest in goji berries now I am one of
the interesting things is these are a perennial it’s a it’s a shrub or a vine
and they are from in the Camino family which is unusual but they do have a
fruit a nice berry that dumb is easy to eat um fresh and this is native to
northern China so most of this this would actually be on the north northwest
China which is really cold so they are cold hardy what we found is they are
some varieties are susceptible to early blight and tomatoes on that it appeared
to be a bigger problem than the cold hardiness the biggest problem there are
if you look at many capital augers like four varieties and when I was I talked
to a woman from southern China about this and the first thing she said is we
don’t eat we don’t grow them for the fruit we grown for the leaves which is
probably one reason why Montana where they’re actually an invasive species
they don’t put its root hardly at all I think when the Chinese introduced them
to Montana they were again growing and mainly for for the leaves but Americans
want fruit and that’s probably one reason why we’re we don’t have as many
varieties as we should so there was a new variety it’s not even named in many
seed catalogs that is listed for zone three I really hope people try it see if
it’s going to work you can do what we did near rush city which was planted a
bunch of seeds and we found 150 plants we did 50 seedlings we did find one that
did have potential definitely have potential but I didn’t know how
propagated I was I was really busy at the time and by the way if you’re you
don’t propagate my seedlings it just didn’t work but you can’t plant a lot of
seedlings to see if one or two will be good enough as far as commercially I’m
not real gung-ho on this because labor is just way more expensive in this
country in China you know like 95% of the goji
berries are actually coming from China and there also is concerned as a for it
being aggressive more so in Montana than here and then fighting talked a little
bit about see berries which are also native to Central Asia phenomenally
Hardy in see berries the name sea berry comes because in Western Europe they
grow along in sand dunes next to the ocean sea buckthorn comes because it has
thorns really nasty thorns I should mention and then buckthorn has such a
bad name in this state that they got rid of the buckthorn and now they just call
it Steve Avery’s they are drought tolerant some frost tolerant I’m in like
on activity we also have male and female plants if you’re looking at varieties
all the varieties are females nobody’s I don’t think anybody’s ever
registered or really registered a male variety and here’s something really
unusual the only fruit I know of in this area that is wind pollinated and so
again it’s about a 1 to 5 ratio between male and females and by the way do not
plant seedlings there they just don’t have good fruit you need to get a
registered variety and there’s new coming out all the time and the health
benefit is a skin this by the way not only is high in vitamin C it’s a high in
vitamin A and E just incredibly rich in a lot of different things one of the
problems people running into they are hard to pick these little berries the
size of a small blueberry they stick to the plant you can’t shake the plant they
don’t shake off and there’s thorns so what a lot of people are doing is they
cut the branches and then freeze the whole branch and then just take the
fruit off afterwards um I have eaten as many different varieties as impossible
could and I have yet to find a variety that I can eat twice eaten more than one
berry berry but I think with the right with used the
right juice especially these phenomenal health benefits I think there is a
future but it also was it’s been planted in
Minnesota for 70 years as edible landscaping by the way you know I
actually has an ornamental now finding out yes not only can you eat the fruit
the good of the fruit are good for you they do spread the spread underground by
roots Tucker’s very aggressive and so they need to be mowed by the way they
can’t handle shade this is a desert plant and so it does look like a full
Sun it can’t compete against the tree overhead and if you’re interested in in
Russian immigrants are looking for these and there’s about seven or eight
varieties that have that have the fruit quality in the fruit yield it ought to
be of interest and some of the new varieties by the way are on our red so a
light to dark red which I think is really interesting and myself I like
that dark red color so I think there’s a What’s the Thaddeus what’s the joys of
C berries what’s the genus of C berries hippo Chloe hippo for we all put it in
the they are related to lets you know they’re related to buffalo berries and
and it’s it’s in the Alagna AC family but Hipple HR you know just like a hippo
and then old ph AE and that’s because they used to feed them to horses because
um they’d get the horses shiny skins oh I’m seeing all the
I’m seeing all these chats oh I didn’t know about that yep oh I’m sorry don’t
worry that’s why I’m here I have okay questions if you’re if you’re willing we
had word it is seven o’clock and that’s usually when we hang it up but if people
are willing to hang out a little bit oh excuse me
uh the the goji leaves were put in soups there you go yep recording my Chinese
friend okay good that got one question answered there was a question earlier on
about a drop I’m going to prime mispronounce it but dress philia the I
think it’s the fruit fly are in spotted wing Drosophila there we go that is it
are any of the varieties that we’ve talked about particularly susceptible um
no honey berries would be the most susceptible but they are acting ripen
before the spotted wing Drosophila become a problem that’s one nice thing
okay the one that I would be most concerned
with would be goji berries I would you know when you look at the color in the
skin color of this that you know with the thin skin of goji berries yeah
that’s the one I think would be a problem
interesting and then another question that came up was again with the
hummingbirds there’s another question about whether there are any particular
honey berry cultivars that might be particularly good for coming verse if
you happen it’s such a it’s such a new crop
I would I would just say again experiment yeah good and then lastly a
Mary Lee had a question about her Hardy Kiwi she’s never gotten flowers or fruit
any any reason that you could surmise well he has several Hardy Kiwis um
actually they you know some yeah she’s in Beltrami County and some of these are
not very Hardy so it depends on what species so if it is the act immediate
colum it by all means it should be on blooming but if it’s acting imida
this is speculation but whereas if it’s acting imida arguta um it would be
it may not be hardy and a quarter some flower buds are usually the first thing
to dive during winter hardiness and most hours Oh didn’t well yeah
and um yeah I yeah I need to see how the let them most of them have pretty showy
flowers so you should be able to see them alright and by the way oh one of
the things I didn’t mention about elderberries I think is really critical
is traditionally the maid of range the american elderberry there’s a question
about elderberries was actually the Minnesota Iowa border that was a
northern limit now there’s a quite a few native elder Lac elderberries growing in
the southern metro area so they have moved up from some of the books I’ve
seen great anything else anybody wants to ask otherwise we’ll bring the
presentation to a close I’ve got a little few more remarks and then we’ll
call it a night