Human Physiology : What Is Protein Synthesis?

Human Physiology : What Is Protein Synthesis?


You may have heard that if you want to build
muscle mass, it’s helpful to eat more protein. But how does the protein in the food that
you eat actually turn into more muscles? I’m Janice Creneti and this is what is protein
synthesis? Protein synthesis is one of the many complicated processes in your body that
take things like food and turn it into muscles, hair and skin. It all starts with DNA which
is located inside of the nucleus of the cell. DNA exists in a double helix. It looks something
like this. You’ve got two strands. Well these two strands form a pretty big molecule and
they can’t really get outside of the nucleus of the cell into the cytoplasm where all the
building of the body actually happens. So instead, this molecule splits apart and something
called messenger RNA is formed as a complimentary strand. And it looks something like this.
Well the messenger RNA molecule is actually small enough to get out of the nucleus, out
into the cytoplasm of the cell. It separates from the DNA, moves out into the cytoplasm
and that’s where the work of protein synthesis really begins. Something called transfer RNA
which you can think of it as being kind of like a shopping cart carries something called
amino acids which are the building blocks of protein. So the the TRNA will read these
three sets of bases what we call a codon and attach a particular amino acid. It will continue
going down the line putting amino acids on there. All those amino acids will hookup and
they’ll form your protein. And that makes the molecules that turns into your muscles,
your hair and your skin. So there’s a lot going on to turn that protein that you eat
into muscles in your body and its all about protein synthesis. I’m Janice Creneti, thanks.