How do Miracle Fruits work? | #aumsum

It’s AumSum Time How do miracle fruits work? By performing miracles. No. Miracle fruit is a red berry also known as
Synsepalum dulcificum. The fantastic quality about this berry is
that after eating it. Acidic foods which should be sour, taste sweet. The secret behind this is a protein called
Miraculin found in these fruits. However, experts are not sure how miraculin
actually works. But there are three popular theories. First theory states that miraculin temporarily
suppresses sour taste receptors. Hence, when we eat acidic foods, they dont
taste sour. Second theory states that miraculin rewires the sweet receptors. Such that they begin to identify acids as sugars. Thus making sour foods taste sweet. Whereas third theory states that acids cause
miraculin to change its shape. Causing it to bind to the sweet receptors more strongly. Making them over activated, producing a sweet taste. Neutralization reaction. How to treat a bee sting? Hey. Hold On. Do not go near that honeycomb. Please listen to me. It is quite dangerous. Fine. Go ahead. See, I told you. Okay. Now, do not worry. Put this baking soda solution on the bee stung
area. You got some relief, right? Do you know why you got relief? This happened because a neutralization reaction
took place. When we applied baking soda on the stung area. The venom of a honey bee contains formic acid. When it stings us, it injects that acid into
our skin. Formic acid causes immense pain and irritation. However, when we apply baking soda solution,
which is a mild base, on the stung area. It neutralizes the formic acid and cancels its
effect. As a result, the sensation of pain and irritation
decreases and we get some relief. Such a reaction between an acid and a base
is called neutralization. In neutralization, both acidic and basic solutions
neutralize the effect of each other. The nature of both acids and bases gets destroyed. Hey, Wait. What are you doing? Do not tease that insect. It is not a honey bee. It looks similar to a honey bee but it is
a bit longer. It is called a wasp. At least this time listen to me. Okay. Don’t listen and bear the consequences. Applying the baking soda is not going to help. See, nothing is happening. I will tell you what to do. Pour this vinegar on the stung area, you will
get some relief. Why do you think the baking soda solution
did not help in this case? Earlier, in case of the honey bee, we learnt
that its venom is acidic. Hence, baking soda, being a basic solution
helped to neutralize the effect. Now, in case of a wasp, the nature of its
venom is basic. When it stings us, it injects that venom into
our skin. This venom causes us pain and itching. Now, baking soda is also a basic solution. Hence, it will not provide any sort of relief. However, when we pour vinegar, which is a
mild acid, on the stung area. The acid, that is, vinegar and the base, that is, the wasp’s venom get neutralized. As a result, the sensation of pain and itching
decreases and we feel better. Metals and acids. Why is curd not stored in copper containers? Hey wait. What are you doing? Do not eat that curd. It was stored in a copper container. Please listen. Fine, then bear the consequences. I had warned you. Do you know why this happened? This happened because curd contains lactic
acid in it. When curd is stored in containers made up
of metals like copper or brass. The lactic acid present in it, reacts with the metal
and forms metallic salts. These metallic salts are harmful. They make the curd unfit for human consumption. Therefore, to prevent metals from reacting
with acids present in food. The metal containers are coated with a thin layer of tin. Tin is also a metal. However, it does not react with acids as rapidly
as other metals do. Thus keeping the food in the container safe. Sublimation. Why do mothballs disappear over time? You have a nice collection of clothes. But have you kept mothballs to protect them? Yes. I had kept them a few months back below these
clothes. Oh no. Where did the mothballs go? I had placed them right here. Did you steal them? No, no. I have not stolen anything. Mothballs disappear over time. Do you know why? It is because of a process called sublimation. During sublimation, a solid on heating, converts
directly into vapor. Without passing through the intermediate liquid state. Do not lie. How is that even possible? See, I also hid a burger here many days ago. It did not disappear. Oh gross. Just throw that burger in the dustbin. Not all substances sublimate. Mothballs are made up of naphthalene. Naphthalene has very weak intermolecular forces. Because of these weak forces, the mothball
which is made up of naphthalene sublimates. It changes its state from solid to
vapor. Now, this vapor is either absorbed by the
fabric or it escapes into the atmosphere. Causing the mothballs to disappear over time. Wavelength. Why red is used as a danger signal? Oh well, becasue my teacher said so. As usual, you are wrong. The major reason for red to be used as a danger
signal is its wavelength. Yes, I know. Wavelength is the distance between two sea
waves. No. In the wave theory of light, The distance between successive crests or troughs is called wavelength. Longer the wavelength, lesser will be the
scattering of light. Now, among the colors of visible light, red
has the longest wavelength. Hence, it is least scattered by the atmospheric
particles. As a result whether it is fog or smoke, red
light passes comparatively easily through them. Thus, it can be seen from maximum distance. Making red color the right choice to convey any danger. Auroras. Why are auroras formed? Maybe because the earth forgets to switch
off the lights. No. Let me explain. Our sun is a giant burning star. It expels tons of solar wind into space. Solar wind consists of super hot charged particles
which are fatal. So, should we use a big umbrella to protect
ourselves from these particles? No. The earth’s magnetic field acts like a shield
and protects us. Its field lines appear to emerge from the
south pole and merge into the north pole. Now, when the charged particles hit our magnetic
field, most of them get deflected. However, some of them flow along the earth’s
magnetic field lines to the poles. Thus reach our upper atmosphere. Here, these particles collide with oxygen
and nitrogen. This causes them to give off various colors
of light which are called auroras. Human bones. How does a bone heal? Simple, by a bandage. No. Bones are one of the most important parts
of our body. They not only provide structural support but
also produce red blood cells. What? Our bones produce red blood cells? Absolutely. Hence, when we crack or break a bone, it is
very important to heal it. In the healing process, cells called chondrocytes
produce collagen which forms cartilage. This cartilage bridges the gap between the
broken bones, thus producing a soft callus. Then, special cells called osteoblasts create
a hard bony callus using collagen. Minerals like calcium and phosphorus, thus forming our new bone. However, this new bone is irregular in shape. Hence, cells called osteoclasts start remodelling
the bone. Resulting in the formation of bone similar to the original shape. Dandruff. Why do we get dandruff? Tearing of pages. No. Dandruff is a condition in which our scalp
sheds skin cells in the form of white flakes. A yeast called Malassezia globosa, is one
of the mostly accepted reasons for causing dandruff. What a classy name it has. Indeed. Malassezia globosa is naturally present on
our scalp. It feeds on sebum and releases oleic acid. Now, some people are sensitive to this oleic
acid. When it penetrates into the upper layers of
their skin, it causes inflammation. Hence, in response to this inflammation. Their skin sheds a large number of skin cells at a higher rate. These cells then join together forming white
flakes, thus causing dandruff. Why do we stretch in the morning? So that we can sleep for two more hours. No. Wait, I will explain. When we wake up in the morning, we yawn and
stretch our arms and legs. This coordinated yawning and stretching is
referred to as pandiculation. I thought it is referred to as calculation. Just listen. When we are asleep, we do not perform any
activities. Hence, our heart rate becomes slow and the
blood flow is decreased. Also, as many people lie in the same position
for long hours. Their muscles become stiff and tight. Thus, a good stretch in the morning awakens
our body. It brings our heart rate back to normal, improving
the blood flow to various body parts. Stretching also loosens and realigns our stiff
muscles. Making them more flexible and ready for the day ahead. Why does hot air balloon float? Because it has invisible wings. No. It is because of density. Density is the measure of mass present per
unit volume. Lesser the density, lighter will be the object. Now, density varies with temperature. Oh dude. It is so complicated. Alright. I will explain. When a hot air balloon is on ground. The air inside and outside the balloon is of same temperature and density. However, when we turn on the burner of the
balloon. The air inside the balloon starts getting hot. The molecules of air move faster and spread
apart, taking up more space. Hence, the air inside the balloon becomes
less dense than the air outside. As less dense air is lighter, the hot air
balloon rises and thus, begins to float. Why does airplane food taste bad? I do not know. Wait, I will explain. Our ability to perceive taste is affected
by a few factors such as humidity, air pressure, etc. In an airplane, the humidity is less as compared
to that on the ground. This makes the air in the airplane quite dry. Also, to maintain the air pressure inside
and outside the airplane. The air pressure inside it is decreased. Decreased air pressure and dry air, dries
our nose and mouth. Dry nose cannot properly smell odors. Yes dude. I am not abe to smell the burger. Now, smell of food helps us to understand
the flavor and ingredients of the food. Thus, the food which we cannot smell properly
appears unappealing. Also, dry mouth reduces the sensitivity of
our taste buds. As a result, we cannot perceive the taste
of food properly. Why do dogs lick their wounds? Dogs including animals like cats, chimpanzees,
rodents, etc. Do not have access to a proper medical treatment. Hence, a little licking helps to heal and
clean the wound. What? But how? When dogs lick, they apply saliva on their
wounds. This saliva has antiviral and antibacterial
compounds like an enzyme called lysozyme. Lysozyme destroys cell walls of certain bacteria
and helps kill them, thus preventing infection. The saliva also contains a protein called
tissue factor. Which promotes blood clotting and thus stops bleeding. Besides this, licking also removes dirt from
the wound. So, dogs should always lick their wounds. No. Excess licking is not beneficial. This is because a dog’s saliva can also
contain harmful pathogens. They could aggravate the wound and make it
more painful. Hence, nowadays, dogs are made to wear an
Elizabethan collar to prevent them from licking. What causes wrinkles? A witch’s potion. No. Our skin consists of two important proteins
called collagen and elastin. Collagen keeps our skin firm and tight. While elastin gives our skin flexibility and
elasticity. It allows our skin to stretch, twist and contract. Just like an elastic rubber band, right? Absolutely. But as we age, our skin produces less collagen
and elastin. Hence, our skin no longer remains firm. It begins to lose elasticity. As a result, our skin droops, thus causing
wrinkles. Moreover, there are some factors that can
cause early wrinkling. One of them is UV radiation of the sun. Long term exposure to UV radiation can cause collagen and elastin to break down faster than normal. Thus causing wrinkles in early age. Besides this, smoking and poor nutrition may
also contribute to early wrinkling. A bear walks around a house that has four
walls. All the walls face south. Can you guess the color of the bear? What kind of question is that? How is the color of a bear linked to a house? Think. I have no idea man. The color of the bear is white. Confused? Obviously. Let me explain. The Earth is a sphere. At any point on the Earth, any direction will point towards the antipode. Will point directly opposite on the sphere. Now, when the house is exactly at the north pole. Every direction will point directly opposite to the north pole on the sphere, which is south. That is why all the walls face south. Now, in the north pole, we can only find polar
bears which are white in color. Hence, the color of the bear is white. How do antacids work? They do not work. They are unemployed. You are unbelievable. When we eat food, our stomach secretes hydrochloric
acid. This acid helps to digest food. However, sometimes when excess acid is produced. It rises from the stomach and reaches the esophagus or throat causing acidity or heartburn. Now, in order to neutralize the acid, we take an antacid. Antacids work on a simple chemistry principle,
acid plus alkali produces salt and water. Dude. I am really weak in Mathematics. Do not worry. I will explain it to you. Antacids contain alkalis like calcium carbonate
or aluminum hydroxide. When we take an antacid. The alkali reacts with the hydrochloric acid present in ourthroat and stomach. Forming salt and water, and thus, neutralizing the acid. In this way, antacids give us relief from
heartburn or acidity. Why do our teeth turn yellow? Because our teeth need some color in their lives. No. Our teeth basically consist of three parts. The outermost part is enamel. Enamel is white in color. Beneath the enamel, there is dentine. It is yellow in color. Then comes the part called pulp, which has
blood vessels and nerves. Is this the same pulp found in our fruit juices? No. Please concentrate. When we drink or eat acidic fruits and beverages
like lemon, orange juice, soft drinks, etc. They erode or wear away the enamel. Exposing the yellow dentine and thus, making teeth appear yellow. However, did you know that some people’s
teeth are naturally yellowish? This is because in such people, the layer
of enamel is thin. Causing the yellow color of the dentine to appear more clearly. Making their teeth appear naturally yellow. Why do we have different time zones? Bcause we have different watches. No. Our earth rotates on its own axis. Due to this rotation, different parts of the
earth receive different amounts of sunlight. Thus causing morning, noon, evening and night. Now, if we had one time zone, then 12 pm would
be noon at some places. But it would be night or evening at other places which would be inconvenient. Hence, scientists made different time zones According to the earth’s rotation with respect to the sun. But how? The earth makes one full 360 degrees rotation in 24 hours. This means in one hour, the earth moves by
15 degrees. Using this information, scientist divided
the planet into 24 sections or time zones. Each section or region was about 15 degrees wide and had a specific standard time. This helped us know the proper time of the
day in that part of the earth. Why do snakes have forked tongue? Just for fashion. No. Even though snakes have noses. They smell odors of their prey, mate or surroundings. With the help of their tongue and vomeronasal organ. Each time a snake flicks its tongue in air,
it collects odor particles. Then when the tongue is brought back. The particles are transferred to the vomeronasal organ. This organ detects the odors and sends signals
to the brain, helping the snake smell. That is interesting. Now, we know that when we see with our two
separate eyes. Our brain combines the two different perspectives and makes a detailed image of our surrounding. Similarly, because the tongue of a snake is
forked. It collects odor particles from two different locations. Helping the snake understand
in which direction the odor is coming from. Thus, making it easier to locate the prey. Why is it hard to cure HIV or AIDS? HIV or human immunodeficiency virus infects
the cells of immune system. Causing them to produce more copies of the virus and then eventually die. When too many immune cells of our body die. Our immune system is unable to fight off diseases. Then we are said to have AIDS or
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Now, coming back to the question. It is hard to cure HIV or AIDS because HIV
has the ability to mutate extremely quickly. Hence, a drug which is somewhat effective
on a patient suffering from HIV or AIDS. Might not work on another patient because of the
mutated HIV. Now, there are certain antiretroviral drugs. That prevent the cells from producing new copies of HIV. Thus controlling the HIV levels in our body. But, it is hard to completely eradicate HIV. Because the virus integrates its DNA into our cell’s DNA. Hence, if we stop taking the drugs. The DNA of the virus can again cause the cell to produce copies of the virus Thus, we are unable
to control the level of HIV infected cells in our body. Why does it feel so good to scratch an itch? Because scratching gives us new ideas. Oh no. When there is an allergic reaction or when
insects like mosquito bite. The itch receptors of that region send itch signals to the brain. Now, as a protective response, we scratch
the itch. In order to remove or dislodge the insect or whatever is on the skin that is causing the itch. In addition to this, scratching also helps
reduce the itch sensation. But how? Scratching activates pain receptors. So, the idea is that when we scratch. The neurons in the spinal cord transfer pain signals instead of itch signals to the brain. When the pain signals reach the brain, it
releases a neurotransmitter called serotonin. Which is a happiness related chemical to make
us feel good and thus, dull the pain. In this way, scratching an itch makes us feel