Healthy Eating For Weight Loss Pt 1

Healthy Eating For Weight Loss Pt 1


00:01 Hello! We have a number of serious
00:05 public health problems in the United States today
00:08 probably none more serious than overweight. 00:12 In this program we will be talking about
how to 00:15 loose weight, and we hope that you will
join us, we think 00:18 you will learn some things that will
be very helpful. 00:41 Welcome to Help Yourself to Health
00:43 with Dr. Agatha Thrash of Uchee Pines Institute,
00:46 and now here is your host Dr. Thrash. 00:49 It may be that you have struggled with
your weight, 00:58 I have, I think that by the time that
I was 15 years old 01:04 I remember weighing about 170 Ibs, from
then for about 01:11 the next 20 years I guess, I had as
a major problem 01:15 that of thinking about my weight, hoping
that it wouldn’t 01:21 get any higher wondering why I couldn’t
be just like 01:25 other girls who were so skinny they
were so slender and I was 01:31 a little on the hefty side although
I was 5’10” 01:35 I still was what you might call hefty.
01:39 Some said that I carried my weight very well,
01:42 but in subsequent years I realized that my weight
01:47 at that time was quite a great deal more than was healthful.
01:52 So if you have this kind of thought, and you want to get
01:57 some tips on how you can best loose weight, several of us
02:03 have some special experience along those lines,
02:07 and we would like to share that with you.
02:10 I have asked Rhonda Clark who is one of my colleagues
02:14 at Uchee Pines to join me and Rhonda, do you know something
02:20 about weight control? 02:21 – I do I have struggled with my weight
a good bit of my life. 02:25 – So you are as I am you have personal
experience 02:29 in how to loose weight.
02:31 – Very good, tell us what you can that will be helpful.
02:38 Ok, I would be happy to, and I would like to begin by just
02:40 sharing a little of my personal experience with weight.
02:43 I came to Uchee Pines looking for information on how to
02:47 more effectively manage my weight, I didn’t have a
02:51 weight problem so much as a young person, 02:52 but as a young adult gained a great
deal of weight, 02:55 and what I learned of the principles
of good health 03:01 that are promoted by Uchee Pines and
our program here. 03:04 I felt that those may be the very thing
I had been 03:07 looking for to finally be successful,
and I want to share 03:10 with you the things that I have found
for myself to be 03:14 beneficial.
03:16 I brought a couple of pictures with me and these are a little
03:18 embarrassing Dr. Thrash, to share, but I do want people
03:21 to see. – We’ll recognize that these are
03:23 in the past. – Yes! 03:25 These pictures come from several months
ago, 03:28 I’m working in a greenhouse at Uchee
Pines, this was when I 03:30 first arrived on campus and you could
see, “I hope,” 03:34 a little difference in how I appear
today. 03:36 Now clearly I still have some weight
to loose, 03:38 but at this time I was almost a hundred
pounds heavier 03:42 than I am now, and I’m so grateful to
be able to share 03:46 with you some of the principles that
have helped me overcome 03:50 so far on my journey that amount of
weight, 03:54 and which I feel very confident will
help me achieve 03:56 a full success.
03:58 – Certainly, as some people are fond of saying
04:03 to try to succeed is better, you may fail, but not to try
04:09 is to ensure that you are going to fail. 04:11 – Absolutely, and those who try the
most are going to be the 04:16 most likely to succeed, you’ve got to
hang in there, 04:18 I tell myself that as well.
04:19 I feel that when it comes to weight loss, there are two key
04:23 principles, and these have to do with the physiology of the body
04:27 and helping our body help us loose weight, and achieve
04:30 a normal weight. 04:32 Key number one, has to do with optimizing
the insulin function 04:36 in our body, key number two is to help
insure that our 04:40 digestive process is very efficient
and let me tell you 04:44 why.
04:46 With insulin, insulin’s job in our body is to take the glucose
04:50 that comes to our blood stream from the foods that we have
04:52 eaten, and put it in places where it is supposed to go
04:56 to help us have energy and give us fuel. 04:58 It will put it into the cells to be
used immediately for fuel 05:02 or in certain cells in the body it is
able to store glucose 05:06 and long chains called glycogen, this
is a short term storage 05:11 for glucose, and it’s right there ready
for us 05:13 if there is no immediate glucose to
be burned. 05:16 It’s what we use while we sleep at night
or if we are involved 05:19 in endurance sports, a third place that
insulin can put any 05:23 excess blood glucose into our body is
storage as fat. 05:27 Now one thing that is very important
for an overweight 05:32 person to know is that you want to help
the insulin 05:36 put as much as that glucose into your
cells where it can be 05:39 burned off rather than storing it as
fat. 05:43 And you know Dr. Thrash, there are ways
that we can tell 05:47 how our body is doing in the storage
of these things 05:50 where it is sending.
05:52 – Insulin is making you store it as fat, as compared to
05:57 using it directly as a source of energy, or putting it into
06:02 glycogen which can be stored for a little delayed use,
06:06 but not for permanent storage like fat. 06:09 – Yes indeed, and one of the things
that can help even 06:14 the more fit you are, the more likely
the glucose that comes 06:17 from the food you eat will go right
to the cells to be burned 06:20 for fuel or right into glycogen storage.
06:23 In fact the more fit we become our body makes more and more
06:27 opportunity for glycogen storage, and that is something
06:30 that doesn’t add to our weight and it gives us more energy
06:33 when we are exercising, especially for 06:34 long term exercise.
06:36 We come then to the person who is overweight, 06:39 and if they have had a diet that is
high in refined foods, 06:43 have been very sedentary, eating high
fat foods, 06:46 the cells become resistant to the action
of insulin, 06:50 and now when the insulin tries to put
the glucose into 06:54 the cell, the number of receptors that
are there to 06:57 allow that process to occur are fewer,
or just clogged up 07:02 not able to work effectively.
07:04 We need to make some changes in our diet and exercise patterns
07:09 to help prevent insulin resistance and make the cells
07:13 very receptive to glucose and glycogen, 07:15 and we do this through some very simple
means. 07:18 A plant based very simple diet is one
of the best first steps, 07:24 not only is the diet that is plant based
lower in calories 07:27 it’s rich in fiber and it gives feelings
of fullness 07:31 that can last for longer periods of
time, and help you eat less 07:36 you can fill up much faster on a couple
of potatoes, 07:39 than you can on a bag of potato chips,
for example. 07:41 Another thing that I know you promote
a lot on the program 07:45 here Dr. Thrash and that is exercise.
07:47 – Oh yes! I feel that exercise will cover a lot of the ills
07:52 in another place. 07:53 Well you just now said that a couple
of potatoes will 07:57 give you more satisfaction than a bag
of potato chips, 08:01 what if it were a big bag of potato
chips, 08:04 is it the same?
08:06 – You might eventually feel full, but think of all the
08:09 additional salt and fat that you have taken in.
08:11 – Actually a potato is not addicting in itself
08:15 but you take that first potato chip and it is almost impossible
08:20 not to take the second, if you are addicted. 08:23 Now with the potato, you have the potato
on your plate 08:27 and you don’t have anything but salt
on it, it tastes good 08:31 you love the taste of the potato and
just the salt or maybe 08:32 a little bit of soy mayonnaise or maybe
some sour soy cream, 08:40 have that on the potato, and you can
eat a potato and stop. 08:45 – Yes!
08:46 – But you can’t eat a potato chip and stop.
08:49 – And we both know that, indeed you can have a delightful diet
08:54 that’s very satisfying and yet simple it will help keep your
08:58 insulin working very efficiently. 09:01 Exercise a crucial part to reducing
the resistance 09:04 of insulin in your body, as you exercise
the message is sent 09:09 “our cells need more glucose” and so
they build this process 09:13 in the place that reinforces using the
glucose for fuel 09:16 and storage as glycogen.
09:17 Another thing that is really important is to have an adequate
09:20 water intake, the centers in our brain that control thirst
09:23 and hunger are very near to each other in proximity
09:27 and those signals can become confused. 09:28 In addition water is really important
for the effective 09:30 use of insulin taking the glucose into
the cells 09:35 so make sure you are drinking at least
8- 10 glasses of 09:39 pure fresh water every day.
09:40 It’s important to get regular sleep, an early bedtime and at
09:45 least 7 hours of sleep a night, not exceeding 9 is important
09:49 for a very efficient carbohydrate metabolism 09:53 and efficiency in insulin function.
09:55 So these are some tips on insulin function. 09:58 – Yes, and we know that insulin is also
a very good appetite 10:05 stimulant, it’s the very best appetite
stimulant known to man. 10:09 So if we need to stimulate the appetite
of a person 10:13 artificially we may give a little insulin,
not much, 10:16 just a little so that the person who
is really struggling 10:20 to eat to have an appetite, it can help
to give them 10:24 an appetite, so the person who is overweight
they have a 10:26 high insulin level, because they are
trying to keep the 10:31 sugar level down, the body is trying
to keep the sugar 10:33 level… so it does that by high insulin
level, 10:36 as the insulin goes up it makes the
person hungry 10:41 so that they eat their meal insulin
goes up, two hours later 10:45 they could eat again.
10:46 Sometimes it is 20 minutes after they have just finished
10:49 eating, they are hungry again. 10:51 When that kind of thing happens the
person should know 10:54 that they are indeed struggling with
insulin and 10:58 not with hunger.
10:59 – Yes, and what can become a vicious cycle there
11:02 is that as the person becomes insulin resistant
11:05 more and more insulin is secreted into the body
11:08 and in it’s effort to keep the blood glucose level normal
11:12 it will store more and more as fat. 11:14 It reaches the point where a person
with insulin resistance 11:17 could eat the same meal as someone without
insulin 11:19 resistance, and store a much greater
portion of that as fat 11:23 rather than having that used as fuel,
11:25 so you can see why this stuff is so important.
11:28 The other step that I mentioned in weight loss is to help make
11:32 your digestion just as efficient as possible.
11:35 Well what does that have to do with weight?
11:37 If we are not having an efficient digestion, 11:40 we won’t be fully absorbing the nutrients
that are in our foods 11:44 we also can be creating an inflammatory
state in the 11:47 digestive system, and both of these
very readily contribute 11:51 to food cravings, and those are difficult
to overcome 11:55 as you know if you struggle with weight
at all. 11:57 So some guidelines in helping to make
a very efficient digestion 12:01 are again simplicity.
12:04 Simplicity in your diet, avoiding rich foods,
12:07 very stimulating spices, things that are salty,
12:10 sugary, avoiding all of the refined food products.
12:14 Then it comes to very simple things too, things like
12:17 chewing your food well, saliva is your friend when it comes to
12:21 digestion, the digestion of carbohydrates begins
12:24 in our mouth, and so it’s important. 12:27 – And also as you spend time chewing
the stomach fills with 12:31 gastric juices which gives one a better
sense of satiety 12:36 than if they just eat fast then the
insulin level goes up 12:41 they could again eat right away, in
fact they often do 12:43 and again they eat fast, and the insulin
level goes up 12:48 and shortly they can eat again so it
is this thing that makes 12:53 people who are traveling, every time
they pass a place 12:55 where they could eat, if they can possibly
eat they pull in 13:00 and get something to eat if they don’t
have something 13:02 already in the car.
13:03 – Yeah! You know another important thing about really
13:08 mixing our food well with saliva, and making sure we have
13:10 efficient digestion is not to take liquids with our meals.
13:13 Liquids dilute things, we often will swallow food that has not
13:17 been mixed well with saliva if we are taking liquids with
13:20 our meals, it also dilutes the gastric juices that have been
13:23 secreted and prepared, and foods can pass on into the bowel
13:27 with really incomplete digestion and creating that inflammatory
13:32 state that we discussed. 13:34 Another important thing is to.., another
important thing is to… 13:36 one thing that is helpful for digestion
is to take 13:38 a gentle walk after meals, this is something
to help keep 13:43 the action of the digestive system stimulated,
13:45 not a vigorous walk that would suppress the digestive system
13:49 something gentle just to help get things moving so to speak.
13:53 I’m sure in your experience you know many other things
13:57 that are important for us, and helpful for us.
13:59 – Yes I do, a lot of things, but I appreciate these things that
14:02 you have mentioned, and I think you spoke about a two meal plan?
14:10 – I have not yet but, thank you. 14:12 – Ok, I’ve heard you speak about a two
meal plan, 14:14 and would you elaborate on that a bit?
14:16 – Yes I would, both for improving insulin efficiency and
14:21 efficiency of digestion, a two meal plan is really helpful.
14:26 This is something that I have personally adopted and
14:29 will continue for the rest of my life. 14:30 I have found it to be very healthful
for me, 14:32 it helped me get over some gastric reflux
problems that I 14:35 had, it helped me sleep a lot better
at night. 14:37 – But don’t you go around hungry all
the time, 14:39 especially after lunch?
14:41 – I don’t and I have learned that if you have a very
14:46 nourishing breakfast and lunch with good whole foods
14:49 rich in fiber you won’t be hungry for your third meal.
14:53 – That’s been my experience as well Rhonda,
14:54 I think I have had maybe 10 in the last 30 years,
15:01 I’ve had maybe 10 nights when I really felt I would love
15:06 to have a supper, but the rest of the time, sometimes I feel
15:11 faintly hungry, but most of the time I don’t feel hungry
15:14 at all, I can leave the dinner table which is the middle of the
15:18 day, not evening and go all the way through the rest of the day
15:24 and the night and wake up the next morning really interested
15:28 in breakfast. 15:30 Then I eat a very nourishing breakfast
and I’m very satisfied 15:33 with that.
15:35 What about such things as irritants for the stomach?
15:38 – There are many that are very commonly taken in the
15:41 American diet, probably one that I didn’t think I would ever
15:44 give up was black pepper, I loved pepper on everything,
15:47 and have learned that, that is a common irritant
15:51 vinegars and pickles that are made with vinegars,
15:54 other types of irritating spices like cinnamon, cloves,
15:57 those are things to take out of your diet if you are trying
16:00 to help your digestion to be more efficient. 16:02 One other point that I wanted to mention
and that is 16:05 how important it is to undergo a very
low fat diet 16:09 as you are loosing weight.
16:10 We do need fats in our diet, healthful fats are especially
16:13 beneficial for us for nice skin and hair, and cardiac health.
16:18 – What would you say are the best fats 16:20 that a person could take when they are
loosing weight? 16:23 – The best fats are those fats that
are still found in their 16:26 whole state that are plant based fats.
16:29 – Like nuts. -Yes! Like beans. -Yes! 16:31 – and whole grains, -Yes!, – and avocado,
16:35 – avocado certainly. 16:36 – What about olives, can you have olives?
16:38 – Olives certainly, and of course in moderation,
16:41 but as for nuts there are some nuts that tend to be
16:44 more healthful than others, 16:45 almonds, pecans and walnuts tend to
be the best for the 16:49 healthful fats that they have, they
are lower in the 16:52 saturated fats that we find in cashews
and macadamia nuts 16:55 those types of things.
16:56 – But they are so good. – Yes they are! 16:58 – Can I ever have any?
17:00 – Of course, in moderation. – In moderation. -On occasion.
17:03 – How can you tell what a good portion size is
17:07 when you are overweight? 17:08 How would you suggest counseling a teenage
girl who was 17:15 quite hefty, and she eats lunch with
you? 17:18 This is a personal experience that I
had, 17:22 a patient ate lunch with me and this
was before the start 17:29 of her weight control program, she filled
a plate high 17:34 with food, and I thought that girl will
never be able to eat 17:38 that much food, it was just an enormous
amount. 17:42 She not only polished that all off,
but she went back 17:45 for a second plate and it was as large
as the first. 17:48 I thought that’s true… I’m sure she
hurt, 17:53 she couldn’t possibly do anything but
hurt, and yet 17:57 she was able to eat all of that and
then took a dessert 18:00 on top of all of that.
18:01 So how do you tell what portion sizes are?
18:05 – This is an excellent question because people who are
18:07 overweight often are very out of touch with their hunger
18:10 and fullness signals. 18:12 – Hunger and fullness, we need to recognize
that there are 18:16 two things, one is hunger and one is
satiety, we can be filled 18:23 and still be hungry.
18:25 – Oh yes! Oh yes! 18:27 – One is appetite and the other is genuine
hunger. 18:30 – Yeah!
18:31 – So when we know we’ve had enough to eat, at that point
18:39 we can know that we should stop eating and so I need to have the
18:44 power, the strength in myself to stop eating.
18:48 But already I know Rhonda that I don’t have that power
18:52 in myself because I have tried not once nor twice, nor 100,
18:57 nor 200, but probably thousands of times I have said
19:00 when I go to a meal, I’m not going to overeat, and I did
19:05 how do you council people with that, do you have any good way?
19:11 – I do have one way that’s been helpful for me personally
19:13 and it takes the courage to admit that you have a problem
19:16 with a trusted friend and that is to incorporate their help,
19:20 let them help be your judge, your guide, it may be
19:25 that you ask them to come to meals with you, or that plan
19:28 with them that they can help you, that you eat what they eat
19:31 or that they spend time with you in prayer.
19:34 I had a friend that prayed with me every morning for a period
19:36 of time when I was going through difficulty, 19:38 and helped me really fully surrender
this principle of 19:41 appetite, and I appreciate that and
you will too as you have 19:45 trusted friends that can hold you accountable
to you plan. 19:48 I will mention too on things like portion
sizes, 19:52 sometimes if you really have lost touch
on what is healthful 19:57 you may have to measure some things,
watch to see what those 20:01 who are slender are eating for their
portion sizes. 20:04 If you have eaten a lot in restaurants
you will have a 20:07 distorted idea of what a normal portion
size is on foods, 20:11 the portion sizes there are greatly
expanded. 20:14 What about eating in restaurants is
that a good idea for the 20:18 overweight person?
20:19 – You know I used to think that that would be fine because
20:22 more restaurants these days have options that seem
20:26 acceptable, but you really don’t know what has been put into
20:30 that food, how it has been prepared, or what might be there
20:33 that would mess you up along the way. 20:35 I would encourage those who are trying
to loose weight 20:38 to avoid restaurants as much as possible,
there’s many things 20:41 that will tempt you when you are there,
even if you go there 20:44 with good intentions to eat something
healthful, 20:46 and you may find that the vegetables
that are on the side 20:49 are covered in margarine or that those…
20:53 – They have some very highly spiced things,
20:56 or a lot of vinegar in it and you the serving
21:01 and then you realize that it’s unhealthful 21:04 and cause improper digestion.
21:06 – It’s best to do your own food as much as possible.
21:10 – Do your own food, eat as much as you can at your own home.
21:13 – Yes! 21:14 – Thank you so much those are wonderful
tips and I appreciate 21:17 then I subscribed to all of these myself,
and I believe that 21:21 you will benefit from this as well.
21:24 Now not everybody who is dealing with weight
21:29 is dealing with overweight. 21:32 Some people are dealing with underweight,
and I think that 21:36 some of the young ladies that I have
seen who have been 21:39 underweight have been as distressed
about their 21:43 underweight as those who are overweight
are distressed 21:47 about theirs, and so I’ve asked Dr.
Donald Miller 21:50 who is our colleague at Uchee Pines,
welcome Dr. Miller. 21:54 – Thank you!
21:55 – And I can see very easily that you’ve probably never
21:59 struggled with a weight control problem, on the overweight side.
22:06 – Well you know struggling with an appetite doesn’t just deal
22:09 with weight, I can overeat and become skinnier.
22:13 People deal with food in different ways, and it depends
22:16 on your…, I don’t know what it depends on quite frankly
22:19 but I have always been thin, from my youngest years,
22:23 and I used to hate being thin. 22:25 When I was in Boy Scouts when you are
wearing your shorts, 22:29 some boys would have their socks pulled
up and they would just 22:31 stay up, and mine would just fall down
around my ankles 22:33 because I had no legs, just bloop! drop
down to the bottom. 22:36 I hated being thin, I hated being thin
for most of my life 22:40 until I got to the point where most
of the people my age 22:43 started bulging out in different areas,
and I stayed thin and so 22:47 I’m very happy with that, so if you
are thin, 22:50 look on the bright side, it’s a whole
lot healthier than being 22:54 overweight, but even there you can get
to underweight, 22:58 you can look downright malnourished.
23:01 I was in the Marine Corps for many years, 23:03 and I did in fact when I was in the
Marine Corp battle 23:06 sometimes getting a little bit overweight,
23:09 because there you had to be very trim and very slim
23:12 and fit into your uniform and I found that one of the most
23:16 important things especially when you are young is to be
23:18 physically active, the more physically active you are now,
23:22 the more benefit you are going to get later in life.
23:25 I’m almost 60 now and when I was a young man,
23:28 and I was very active, I became a runner, see I’ve got a…
23:31 I like to call it a runners physique, “that I’m skinny. ”
23:33 Runner, I was a Marathon runner I have kept that physique
23:38 and I’m very thankful for it. 23:39 But if you sincerely want to gain weight,
23:42 basically you do the same thing that Rhonda was
23:45 talking about, about loosing weight. 23:47 Is chewing your food well, is eating
the right things, 23:50 it’s not eating more food, it’s taking
the food that you 23:53 are eating and using it in a better
way. 23:56 – How about being regular in your meal
times? 24:00 – That’s important for almost everything,
if we are not 24:02 regular in our meal times, we throw
our bodies off. 24:05 See if your body is not ready to receive
food, 24:08 your brain gets you all ready, see we
eat on schedule, 24:11 we’re in a thing called Circadian rhythm,
24:13 and if you have not set up a schedule, then your body’s
24:18 not knowing when you are going to dump the food in there
24:20 and if you dump your food in off schedule, you don’t have
24:23 salivary amylase, your pepsin everything is not ready to be
24:28 digesting food, it sort of just passes on through and passes
24:32 on out not completely digested. 24:35 See basically when I teach this I tell
people, your body 24:39 can’t use protein, it can use amino
acids, 24:42 you take in protein, your body breaks
it down to 24:45 amino acids and then it builds proteins
on that. 24:48 It can’t use carbohydrates, it breaks
it down to 24:51 simple sugars, and then it builds up
what you need 24:53 in your body, and so if you are not
getting good complete 24:56 digestion, because first, well basically
digestion does not 25:00 begin in the mouth as many people say,
it begins in the 25:03 mind Pavlov proved that with his conditioned
response 25:07 type of thing when the dog sees, smells,
or hears, 25:10 he starts salivating, it’s a thing that
sometimes even before 25:13 we are thinking about it in the Circadian
rhythm we start 25:16 getting ready for meals while we are
still asleep. 25:18 So when that 6:00 comes when you eat
your breakfast, 25:21 or 7:00 or whatever, you eat your breakfast
on time, 25:24 your body is now ready.
25:26 You once told me this Dr. Thrash if you have 15 minutes to eat
25:30 eat 15 minutes worth of food. 25:32 Many times we don’t have enough time,
and we sit there and we 25:36 stuff it into our faces, and our body
cannot use it that way 25:39 and this is the trick, if we have a
tendency to be slim 25:43 it will make us slimmer.
25:45 If we have a tendency to be corpulent, it will make us
25:47 a little bit larger, and so we need to make sure that we break
25:50 that food down in our bodies by giving us the advantage
25:53 of eating at the right times, the right amounts,
25:56 eating to much food for people who are thin,
25:58 it will just sit there and send it on out,
26:01 without ever stopping by to build up those muscles.
26:04 So you would say that more important than
26:06 the amount of food that you eat to gain weight,
26:09 you would say that efficient digestion 26:12 and assimilation of that food is the
more important. 26:16 I like this little saying, and if you
can write this down 26:18 you can see what I’m talking about,
write down 26:20 on a piece of paper “DON’T EAT FAST”
26:23 that’s the key for gaining weight, don’t eat fast
26:27 take your time, chew your food well, take a mouth full
26:32 of food you put the fork, spoon, whatever it is down,
26:36 and you sit on your hands if you have to, and chew that food.
26:39 If you want to gain weight, you just put a coma between
26:43 eat and fast, don’t eat, fast. 26:46 – Same words.
26:48 – It’s just that coma makes all the difference,
26:50 so I find for myself, when I want to gain weight…
26:54 now I was down to 119 Ibs a couple of years ago,
26:59 high stress in my life, I got rid of this big stressor
27:03 in my life and started exercising and that’s the key.
27:06 Exercising and eating right, I’m on a two meal plan
27:10 I’m happy with a two meal plan, I feel good, and when I can
27:15 when I’m not in an airplane flying over places,
27:17 I like to get into a good exercise program, 27:20 build up my muscle mass, that has more
weight, 27:23 I feel a whole lot better, I look better
and 27:26 I’m going to live longer.
27:27 – Some people tell me though they are under weight
27:32 they certainly don’t want to exercise because that’s a
27:34 weight loss program. – No 27:36 – No, it actually does build up your
muscles, 27:40 it increases your appetite, it makes
the digestion more 27:43 perfect so that you can assimilate and
store the food 27:49 that you do eat better, so I hope these
remarks 27:52 have been helpful to you on both sides,
27:55 overweight and underweight.