class 10 CBSE electricity notes 1. positive and negative charges the

charge acquired by a glass rod when rubbed with silk is called positive

charge and the charge acquired by an Emma night rod when rubbed with wool is

called negative charge 2.Coulomb it is the SI unit of charge one Coulomb is

defined as that amount of charge which repels an equal and similar Pels an

equal and similar charge with a force of 9 X 109 and when placed in vacuum at a

distance of one meter from it charge on an electron equals minus one point 6 X

10 to 19 Coulomb 3.static and current electricity

static electricity deals with the electric charges at rest while the

current electricity deals with the electric charges in motion. 4. conductor :-a substance which allows passage of electric charges through it easily is

called a equals conductor a conductor offers very lower zippers very low

resistance to the flow of current for example copper silver aluminium etc. 5.insulator a substance that has infinitely high resistance does not

allow electric current to flow through it it is called an equals insulator for

example rubber glass plastic Evon. 6. electric current the flow of

electric charges across a cross-section of a conductor constitutes an electric

current it is defined as the rate of flow of the electric charge through any

section of a conductor electric current equals charge / time or I equals Q / T

electric current is a scalar quantity current is a scalar quantity. 7.Ampere it is the SI unit of current if one Coulomb of charge flows through any section of a conductor in one second then current through it is said to be

one ampere one ampere equals 1 Coulomb / one second or one a equals 1 C / 1 s

equals 1 1 s equals 1 C s 1 1 milliampere equals 1 ma equals 10 to 3 a

1 micro ampere equals 1 A equals 10 to 6 A. 8. electric circuit the closed path

along which electric current flows is called an equals electric circuit. 9.conventional current conventionally the direction of motion of positive charges

is taken as the direction of current the direction of conventional current is

opposite to that of the negatively charged electrons. 10. Electric field it

is the region around a charged body within which its influence can be

experienced 11. electrostatic potential

electrostatic potential at any point in an electric field is defined as the

amount of work done in bringing a unit positive charge from infinity to that

point it’s unit is volt positive charges move from higher to lower potential

regions electrons being negatively to higher potential regions. 12. potential difference between two points the potential difference between two points

in an electric field is the amount of work done in bringing a unit positive

charge from one to another potential difference equals work done / charge or

V equals W slow 13. one volt potential difference

the potential difference between two points in an electric field is set to

one volt if one Joule of work has to be done in bringing a positive charge of

one Coulomb from one point to another one volt equals one Jarl / 1 Coulomb or

1v equals 1 J / 1 C. 14. Galvanometer it is device to detect current in an

electric circuit. 15.Ammeter it is device to measure current in a circuit it is

always connected in series 16. Volt meter it is a device to

measure potential difference it is always connected in parallel to the

component across which the potential difference is to be measured. 17. Ohm’s law this law states that the current passing through a conductor is directly

proportional to the potential difference cross its ends provided the fans cross

its ends provided the physical conditions like temperature density etc

remains unchanged Vai or V equals RI the proportionality constant R is called

resistance of conductor 18.Resistance it is a property of a

conductor by virtue of which it opposes the flow of current through it it is

equal to the ratio of the potential difference applied across its ends and

the current flowing through it resistance equals potential difference /

current or R equals V / I. 19.Ohm:- it is the it is the SI unit of resistance a

conductor has a resistance of 1 ohm if a current of 1 ampere flows through it on

applying a potential difference of one volt across it sends one ohm equals 1

volt / 1 ampere or 1 equals 1 V / 1 a 20. factors on which resistance of a

conductor depends the resistance r of a conductor depends I directly on its

length li ER al 2 inversely on its area of cross-section a ie are a 1/3 on the

nature of material of the conductor on on combining vectors we get R al / a R

equals asterisk l / a the proportionality constant is called

resistivity of conductor. 21.Resistivity it is defined as the resistance offered

by a cube of a material of side 1m when current flows perpendicular to its up

its SI unit is o meter M resistivity equals. 22. Equivalent resistance if a single

resistance can replace the combination of resistances in such a manner that the

current in the circuit remains unchanged then that single resistance is called

the equivalent resistance. 23. laws of resistances in series I current through

each resistance is same to total voltage across the combination equals sum of the

voltage drops V=v1 + v2 + v3 iii) voltage drops across any resistor

is proportional to its resistance v1=IR 1 v2=IR 2 v3=IR

3 for equivalent is equal sum of the individual resistances RS=r1 +

r2 + r3 B equivalent resistance is larger than the largest individual

resistance 24.laws of resistances in

parallel I voltage across each resistance is same and is equal to the

applied voltage to total current equals sum of the currents through the

individual resistances I=i1 + i2 + i3 iii)currents through

various resistances are inversely perp or to the individual resistances I 1

=V / R 1 I 2=V / R 2 I 3 equals V / R 3 for reciprocal of

equivalent resistance equals sum of reciprocals of individual resistances 1

/ RP=1 / R 1 + 1 / R 2 + / R 3 be equivalent resistance is less than the

smallest individual resistance 25. Charles law of heating it states that

the heat produced in a conductor is directly proportional to I the square of

the current I through it to proportional to its resistances are ndt 3 the time T

for which current is passed mathematically it can be expressed as h

=i DG l=i to RT / 4.18 cal or h=VI TJ l=VI t / 4.18

cal 26 electric energy it is the total work done in maintaining an electric

current in an electric circuit for given time electric energy W=V=I

to RT ciao 27 electrical power electrical power is

the rate at which electric energy is consumed by an appliance P=w / T

=6=I to R=V 2 /r 28 what it is the SI unit of power the

power of an appliance is 1 what if one amp current flows through it on applying

a potential differences of 1 volt across it sends 1 what=1 Jarl / 1 second

=1 volt X 1 ampere or 1 W=1 J s 1=1 VA 1 kilowatt=1000

W 29 kilowatt hour it is the commercial

unit of electrical energy one kilowatt hour is the electric energy consumed by

an appliance of 1000 watts when used for one hour one kilowatt hour kilowatt hour

=3.6 x 106 J. thanks! for watching our video please

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